8 March Science 8 Workday for Photosynthesis summative

Mindful moment.

New words–Polysemy and Synonymy (think of examples in everyday talk, in science, in other subjects. How do you decide which terms to use?

Work on Photosynthesis summative–see previous blogposts.

Work on Parent-Student-Teacher conferences.

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7 March Science 7 Complete the spreadsheets / database; Introduce summative

Mindful moment–your search images!

Make plans to finish common spreadsheet.

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1TwQrxWbHA0UUlfbkzHNu6c9-Y0CWO-u_L9k-4rmvIWw/edit?usp=sharing

Introduce ideas for summative. Add new questions from students–see below.

Make sure you understand each question / task. (Ask if you do not understand something.)

Diversity index = number of species in an area / number of individual trees in the same area. Can also be used with regard to subgroups–such as–number of exotic species/total number of trees–and/or–number of exotic species / number of exotic individual trees.

What could you learn by seeing such ratios (indices)? How could these indices be useful in making a policy on which trees to plant?

  • * * * *

Tree Biodiversity Summative 2019 – Part 2

Working with the spreadsheet database together as a class, complete the following:

  1. Determine how many species there are on campus. How many of each species in each zone?
  2. How many individual trees are on campus? How many in each zone?
  3. What is the diversity index (#species/#trees) for the whole campus? For each zone of the campus?
  4. Find out the plant family for each tree species (This could come from “Trees of Delhi” or Wikipedia).
  5. Determine the botanical origin (Where is the tree from? India, Asia, Europe, The Americas, Oceania) for each species.

Using the database generated by your class, answer the following (use complete sentences in questions that require more thoughtful answers, inference and reflection):

  1. Which zone has the largest number of species of trees?
  2. Which zone has the largest number of trees?
  3. Compare the diversity index for the whole school to each zone. Which zone is most diverse? Which is the least?
  4. How many plant families are represented by the trees on campus? Which is the most abundant?
  5. Which genus is most abundant (total number of trees)?
  6. Which genus is/are found in all 6 zones?
  7. Which species is most abundant (total number of trees)?
  8. Which species is found in all 6 zones?
  9. Are any species represented by only a single tree on campus?
  10. Which species do you think is the rarest and why?
  11. What is the predominant botanical origin of campus trees? Old World or New World or Australia?
  12. What is the proportion of campus trees that are native (North India/ Aravalli or India)?
  13. How many trees are considered invasive? What does that mean?
  14. Use the diversity index and the species you categorized as native to calculate the diversity index of native trees in each zone and the school overall.
  15. Are most of the invasive species on campus from the Old World or New World ? What could be the implications for our campus environment? Answer in terms of natural, social, aesthetic and other impacts.
  16. Which trees do you think have grown naturally (not planted) on campus? Why?
  17. Which 5 trees have the largest girth (circumference) @ 1.5m? Are they from the same species, genus or family? Are they in the same zone of the campus or different zones?
  18. What differences do you notice between trees found inside the campus and outside (zone 6)?
  19. How confident are you in the results of your tree survey? Did you discover any errors? Point them out and explain why you think they are errors. How do you think the errors occurred? Reflect on what you personally have learned from this very ambitious project. Include your work and presentation on your partner tree.
  20. Describe how your group worked together during the survey. What challenges did you face? How did you meet those challenges? What could you have done individually and what could you have done as a group to have made your collaboration more efficient and effective?

Pick one of the following questions to answer. Use complete sentences.

  • A. Which tree species are currently flowering/fruiting (during the survey)? Describe the trees, their flowers/fruits. How many other individuals of the same species are also flowering/fruiting? What patterns, if any, do you notice or suspect? Are there birds or insects visiting the flowers? Do you think they are pollinators? Why?
  • B, Which trees currently attract the greatest number of birds? Are they feeding, nesting or both? Describe, sketch, and/or identify the birds.
  • C. Which trees have cultural importance? Which trees have legends, myths, stories in which they have a major role or just even appear? Explain your answers. Find out how 10 species got their names (scientific, common English, local—where possible).
  • D. Question from period 3
  • E. Question from period 4

Standards

Planning and carrying out investigations

Analyzing and interpreting data

Structure and function

Growth, development, and reproduction of organisms

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6 March Science 8 Summative project–Photosynthesis; Another piece of historical evidence

Mindful moment. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmFUDkj1Aq0

Review today’s plan–description of Photosynthesis summative project.

Questions.

A piece of evidence missing from the video documentary: Photosynthesis–Botany: A blooming history—

http://bcs.whfreeman.com/webpub/Ektron/Hillis%20Principles%20of%20Life2e/Animated%20Tutorials/pol2e_at_0604_The_Source_of_the_Oxygen_Produced_by_Photosynthesis/pol2e_at_0604_The_Source_of_the_Oxygen_Produced_by_Photosynthesis.html

Photosynthesis argument and evidence

  • Display and explain the basic simplified claim showing the role of water and carbon dioxide and the production of glucose, oxygen, and new water in photosynthetic organisms.
  • Include information about the site of photosynthesis in photosynthetic organisms.
  • Link firsthand (our activities and experiences) and secondhand (historical experiments and evidence)
  • Include visual representation of claims of photosynthesis (captioned/labeled)
  • Discuss that the simplified claim does not reveal the complex series of reactions involved in photosynthesis. While all the details of these cycles of reactions need not be shown, better projects will mention some of the historical experiments and evidence that have led to understanding of the cycles.
  • Each claim linked with firsthand or documented evidence
  • Must address claims of energy input and output
  • Must address claims of flow of matter
  • Written section explaining how PS Standards from 3 strands are met
  • Reference list with full bibliographic information
  • SEP
  • Analyzing and Interpreting Data
  • Engaging in Argument from Evidence
  • CCC
  • Structure and Function
  • Stability and Change
  • DCI
  • M and E in organisms and ecosystems
  • Earth Systems

Options

  • Illustration(s) (not poster size) (a cartoon book, perhaps)
  • Poster
  • Slide show
  • sketches and photos / models / something original (you can justify the originality)
  • other—with approval

Meeting

  • visual (original) representation of claim (accurate–well-done)
  • 3 first hand pieces of evidence–clearly and correctly linked
  • 3 historical pieces of evidence–clearly and correctly linked
  • not all supporting the same part of the claim
  • missing evidence is indicated (what else is needed to establish the claim)
  • discussion of how the claim is simplified
  • due­­­­ beginning of class 12 March. Paper copy and digital copy properly uploaded and shared in DSN.
  • complete reference list with full bibliographic evidence
 *****

More Human Impact articles:

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5 March Science 7 Finish the Tree Diversity Survey; Work on Parent-Student-Teacher conference preparation

Mindful moment.

Last year’s results of the campus tree survey:

See spreadsheet for this year below. Copy and create a version for your zone (share with editing rights with Dr.F.).

Eventually, we will want to consolidate data from all zones.

These are the data fields for each tree. Can you think of other information we should add?

Scientific name

Local name

Common English name

Plant Family

Origin

Zone

Map with trees marked

Specimen with largest girth (cm)

Flowering notes

Fruiting notes

Animal notes

Host to butterflies or moth species

Links to additional information (created by group)

Link to Flowers of India

Link to Wikipedia

Show progress on your group’s spreadsheet. Describe each group member’s role.

Period 3–What is left?

Period 4–What is left?

*****

Preparation for Parent Student Teacher conference.

  1. Show document with scoring for DSN. Number of entries / Number of classes up to 8 March.
  2. Show document with scoring for completeness for each completed entry (from #1 above) Number of items / 7.
  3. Show document with scoring for number of substantial or significant reflections included in each entry.
  4. A personal statement on how much thought and effort you have put into using the DSN as a tool for learning and growth of understanding.
  5. Show essay on Plant Blindness and be ready to discuss what that means with respect to your learning.
  6. Be prepared to talk about your partner tree, how your talk to the class went, what you learned from other class members and their talks. How well do you know your partner tree species? Do you recognize it in other places? Describe.
  7. Be prepared to discuss and share (pictures, notes, etc.) your experience and learning with flowers, fruits, seeds.
  8. Be prepared to discuss the two parts of our semester (now = establishing and experiencing the fact(s) of biodiversity; coming next = learning how scientists explain these facts).
  9. Be prepared to discuss the progress and findings (to date) of the tree diversity survey. Discuss how surveys differ from experiments. What challenges did your group overcome and how did they do this?
  10. Show your best DSN entries and explain why they are your best.
  11. What have you noticed about living things (on campus; elsewhere) so far this semester, that you never noticed before?
  12. How have your matured in your learning in science so far this year? Or have you leveled off or regressed? Give examples. How do you keep your effort high? Or has your effort fallen? Give examples. What can you do to make the rest of the year the best in terms of your learning science? What things have you done and what things can you do? Give examples.

*****

This should give you an idea of some questions for the summative. This is from last year:

Using the database generated by your class and those generated by the other classes, complete the following in complete sentences:

  1. How many species of trees are on campus? What is the total number of individual trees on campus? What is the diversity index (#species/#trees) for the campus? For each area of the campus?
  2. How many plant families are represented by the trees on campus? What is the most abundant plant family? What is most widely distributed species? Which genus is most abundant? Which species is most abundant? Which species are represented by a single specimen? Of the single specimens which would be considered the rarest (need to consult reference for this question)?
  3. What is the predominant botanical origin of campus trees? (Native? Asian? Tropical America?) What is the proportion of campus trees that are native (to Aravalli, India, Asia)? How many species would be considered invasive? Which trees appear to have been established naturally (not planted on purpose by humans)? Just using native trees (to India), what is the diversity index for the school and for each area. Just using foreign or exotic species, what is the diversity index for the school and for each area? What related implications for the campus environment do you see? Be sure to consider “environment” from a wide point of view (natural, social, aesthetic, educational, etc.).
  4. Which 5 trees are the largest (girth @ 1.5m)? Are they from the same species or the same family? Are they in the same zone of the campus or different zones?
  5. Comment on the (scientific) confidence you have in the survey results? What variation do you see across the different databases? What do you think the source(s) of the variation are? Describe how your group collaborated? What challenges did you face? How did you meet those challenges? What could you have done individually and what could you have done as a group to have made your collaboration more efficient and effective?

Pick one of the following three questions to answer. Use complete sentences.

  • A. Which trees are currently flowering/fruiting (February 24 -March 9)? Describe the trees, their flowers / fruits? How many other specimens of the same species are also flowering/fruiting? What patterns, if any, do you notice or suspect? Take time for any flowering trees to note insects or birds visiting the flowers. Which animal species visits which tree species? Try to decide if the animal is a pollinator.
  • B. Which trees attract the greatest number of birds? Feeding? Nesting? Roosting?
  • C. Which trees have cultural importance? Which trees have legends, myths, stories in which they have a major role or just even appear? Explain your answers. Find out how 10 species got their names (scientific, common English, local—where possible).

Submit the analysis as a Google doc uploaded and labeled correctly in your DSN AND in print. Be sure your name, period, and date appear on the document.

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4 March Science 8 Chromatography

Mindful moment.

Review previous class (what structures were we looking for–in the leaf, in the photosynthetic plant cell? why?)

See board.

Anticipate Summative project on supporting the claim of photosynthesis. To be described on Wed. Due the following Tuesday by the end of class.

Questions.

Today’s activity provides an experience with a crucial technique in the understanding of photosynthesis. The technique uses the varying solubility of different molecules (the plant pigments) in a solvent. The solvent moves up a strip of paper by capillary action. See reference: < https://water.usgs.gov/edu/capillaryaction.html  >.The different molecules move at different rates. Separation is one part of discovering the reaction pathways in complex processes. How did Benson and Calvin separate the molecules involved in the numerous photosynthesis reactions? After separation, analysis is carried out to describe the properties, create models, name, and identify the products of the separation. What do you think are the techniques used for such analysis?

In science it is important always to ask–How do we know? The next task is to describe the evidence and to explain how the evidence is linked to claims. Connecting claims with evidence is what is meant by the phrase scientific argument. Your summative assessment on photosynthesis will involve organizing the evidence both from historical experiments and from your own first hand activities, experiences, and experiments and linking the evidence to the (over)simplified claim of photosynthesis. Data that have been analyzed and interpreted in light of an hypothesis, theory, claim become evidence.

*****

Follow instructions for the extraction and separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography. See board. Listen closely to verbal instructions. Watch demonstrations of techniques. Follow all safety guidelines. Record all procedures (verbal descriptions, diagrams-sketches, photos). Record all observations.

BIG QUESTIONS FOR TODAY:

  • What do Chlorophyll and other pigments have to do with the claim of photosynthesis?
  • What does the technique of paper chromatography have to do with the claim of photosynthesis?
  • (In other words, why would we conduct this activity at this time in our study of photosynthesis? What do you learn?)

This image provides an idea of the proper set-up:

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab4/images/chromset.gif

See the image from someone’s experiment: http://socrates.acadiau.ca/COURSES/BIOL/REEKIE/1113/photo/cpaper.gif

There are a number of articles on the history of chromatography. Here is one: history chromatography

More on procedures for chromatography–also interpretation of results:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bring-science-home-leaf-colors/

https://www.depts.ttu.edu/ciser/science-teacher-resources/traveling-lab/curriculum/plants/Plant_Pigment_Chromatography.pdf

See–Why aren’t all plants black? by Physics Girl–excellent youtube science channel:

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1 March Science 7 Complete Tree Surveys

Mindful Moment

Assign group Tasks

Finish Survey — outside

Complete spreadsheet for area (see previous blog) (add, research information)

Complete map–check

 

 

 

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28 February Science 8 Stomata; Chloroplasts–Microscopic examination of leaves and other plant parts–plant cells

  • Mindful moment.
  • Past classes review (DSN–preparing for Parent-Student-Teacher conference–see previous blog)
  • Preview plan for the day in the class blog.
  • Prepare DSN entry.
  • Questions. Share reflections.

Examination of plant material under the microscope.

The purpose is to examine and contemplate the cellular organization of living things. Because green plants carry out photosynthesis, we want to witness first hand the structures that are involved. (Stomata; Chloroplasts, for example.) Remember that photosynthesis takes place in the cells.

Find out what you can about plant cells: http://thebiologyprimer.com/cell/

It’s fun to think of the scale of things and how the accumulated effect of the actions of all the photosynthesizing plant cells in the world, impact the earth. Carbon, oxygen, and water cycles all are affected by photosynthesis. https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/

  • Taking a sample and making a slide. Directions and demonstration in class.
  • Work carefully and neatly. Clean up as you go. Return supplies to dispensing area clean and dry.
  • Take care with sharp tools.
  • Take care with microscopes. Do not use the highest power unless checked by Dr. F.
  • Keep water and plant material off the microscope. Do not touch the lenses.

Things to try:

  • Peel from section of onion bulb (see if there is a difference in an inner peel and an outer peel). http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artfeb11/wd-onion1.html
  • Peel from leaf–top and bottom.
  • Cross section.
  • Longitudinal section.
  • Squash–onion root tip.
  • Mung bean sprout–root tip.
  • Look at a section of your leaf–top and bottom. Then you may try to make a peel.
  • https://www.microscopemaster.com/leaf-structure-under-the-microscope.html

 

Photomicrographs (iphone) above made from leaf peel of Tradescandia in just a few minutes. You can make out stomata and the cell structure of the leaf surface.

Make sketches to show what you see AND the orientation of the sample from the source.

Try to take photos. These should be labelled. If you get a good set, make a pic-collage with captions.

Purple tradescantia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tradescantia_pallida)

Human Impact articles:

 

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27 February Science 7 Continuing the tree survey

  • Mindful moment
  • Review previous class
  • See today’s plan / class blog post
  • Prepare DSN entry
  • Questions

Review last year’s results of the campus tree survey:

See spreadsheet for this year below. Copy and create a version for your zone (share with editing rights with Dr.F.).

Eventually, we will want to consolidate data from all zones.

Period 3–We will finish looking at species and specimens near Gate 5. Then we will turn to the stretch of Zone 6 that runs along Chandragupta Marg. Everyone in the group needs to have a role in gathering the data and checking the data. No member of either group should be disengaged from the tasks required to complete the data set.

Period 4–I will see groups who need help in naming trees. Decide how you will work to complete the spreadsheets for your individual zone.

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26 February Science 8 Julius von Sachs’ experiment–starch production in leaves; Parent Student Teacher conference preparation

  • Mindful moment.
  • Review past classes.
  • Quickly Read today’s plan in today’s class blog post.
  • Prepare DSN entry.
  • Questions.

*****

  • Gather 4 leaves. 3 that you covered with black paper and 1 more that has been uncovered. Keep track of which is which.
  • Wear eye protection. Be alert–ethanol is flammable.
  • Submerge the leaves in boiling/near boiling water for 1 minute.
  • Put the leaves in boiling tubes. Cover them with ethanol.
  • Put the tubes in hot water. The mouth of the tubes should be directed AWAY from other people. DO NOT breathe in fumes. We will have the exhaust fans running and possibly have the door open.
  • Keep the water hot enough in the bath so that the ethanol in the tube boils and the green color is extracted from the leaves.
  • When the leaves are colorless, remove them from the ethanol and rinse in cool water.
  • Pour the used (now green) ethanol into designated bottles.
  • Flatten the leaves onto tiles and douse them with iodine solution.
  • Note the results. Take photos. Write your observations and interpretations in your DSN entry for today.
  • See these notebook entries from former Science 8 students–for the pictures:
  • 20kbardos.5.Feb.StarchExperiment
  • 20mkataoka.Starch.Feb5

*****

Prepare for Parent Student Teacher Conference–we will use this list to have a conversation with your parents. Be prepared!!!

  1. Show document with scoring for DSN. Number of entries / Number of classes up through 8 March.
  2. Show document with scoring for completeness for each completed entry (from #1 above) Number of items / 7.
  3. Show document with scoring for number of substantial or significant reflections included in each entry.
  4. A personal statement on how much thought and effort you have put into using the DSN as a tool for learning and growth of understanding.
  5. Show group presentation on Carbon.
  6. Show your early Carbon essay.
  7. Show your group illustration about Primo Levi’s story of carbon.
  8. Show your von Helmont experiment cartoon.
  9. Discuss your role in the skit involving Ingenhousz and Priestly and/or Lavoisier.
  10. Show any plant experiments, including the seeds you planted.
  11. Discuss the claim of photosynthesis and your approach to gathering evidence in support of the claim–this is the basis of your up-coming summative project.
  12. Show your annotated bibliography for the human impact project and discuss your particular topic.
  13. Be prepared to discuss the two parts of our semester (now = earth cycles–especially the carbon cycle and up-coming water cycle; coming next = how human activity causes shifts in the great cycles than can disrupt the natural patterns in which natural systems/and human society developed.
  14. Show your best DSN entries and explain why they are your best.
  15. What are some things you have thought about so far this semester, that you never thought about before?
  16. Why do you think Dr. F claims that this semester may be the most important course of your life?
  17. How have your matured in your learning in science so far this year? Or have you leveled off or regressed? Give examples. How do you keep your effort high? Or has your effort fallen? Give examples. What can you do to make the rest of the year the best in terms of your learning science? What things have you done and what things can you do? Give examples.

*****

Human Impact articles–check these and those posted in past blogs to add to your annotated bibliography:

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25 Feb Science 7 Tree Diversity Survey Continued; Prepare for Parent Student Teacher Conference

Mindful moment. (Picture your area; imagine what you will see today)

“I have learned about watching my surroundings and how every part of the school has an ecosystem that stretches far beyond most people’s understanding.” (The most important thing I learned during the 2015-2016 school year–7th grade student.)

*****

Let’s read this poem. It was part of this week’s assignment in an online course from Harvard I am taking on the poetry of earth, sky, and sea.

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poetrymagazine/poems/33182/learning-the-trees

*****

Read entire blog. Ask questions. Then we will begin.

*****

  • Continue with Tree diversity survey.
  • Make sure every member of your group is working efficiently and effectively toward the group goals: How many species? How many of each species? Where is each specimen located? (can be a sketch map)
  • There needs to be descriptions of each kind of tree. Also make note of any remarkable specimens–tallest, greatest girth, active nests, old nests, epiphytes, etc.
  • This data will need to be entered into a class spreadsheet / database.
  • Use a map.
  • Describe each type/species in your area. (A below may be more efficient)
  • A) Sweep through an area making sure each individual is marked and is assigned to a type (species). If you know the name, use it. If not, use a lettering system (species A, species B, etc.).
  • Or
  • B) Find each individual specimen of each species and mark on map / count.

I will come find each group and take one member of the group through your area and help with names. I can give a scientific name, a common English name, and/or a local name. Or I can show in one of the reference sources. From that you should be able to find information.

*****

Prepare for Parent Student Teacher Conference–we will use this list to have a conversation with your parents. Be prepared!!!

  1. Show document with scoring for DSN. Number of entries / Number of classes up to 8 March.
  2. Show document with scoring for completeness for each completed entry (from #1 above) Number of items / 7.
  3. Show document with scoring for number of substantial or significant reflections included in each entry.
  4. A personal statement on how much thought and effort you have put into using the DSN as a tool for learning and growth of understanding.
  5. Show essay on Plant Blindness and be ready to discuss what that means with respect to your learning.
  6. Be prepared to talk about your partner tree, how your talk to the class went, what you learned from other class members and their talks. How well do you know your partner tree species? Do you recognize it in other places? Describe.
  7. Be prepared to discuss and share (pictures, notes, etc.) your experience and learning with flowers, fruits, seeds.
  8. Be prepared to discuss the two parts of our semester (now = establishing and experiencing the fact(s) of biodiversity; coming next = learning how scientists explain these facts).
  9. Be prepared to discuss the progress and findings (to date) of the tree diversity survey. Discuss how surveys differ from experiments. What challenges did your group overcome and how did they do this?
  10. Show your best DSN entries and explain why they are your best.
  11. What have you noticed about living things (on campus; elsewhere) so far this semester, that you never noticed before?
  12. How have your matured in your learning in science so far this year? Or have you leveled off or regressed? Give examples. How do you keep your effort high? Or has your effort fallen? Give examples. What can you do to make the rest of the year the best in terms of your learning science? What things have you done and what things can you do? Give examples.
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