29 August Science 8 Consolidating our ideas and experiences with the behaviors and properties of water.

  • Mindful moment.
  • Review entry from DSN from previous class.
  • Preview blogpost for today.
  • Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. Include the link to today’s blogpost.
  • YOUR Questions.
  • * * * * *

Our current goal:

Using water as an example to develop an understanding of the science of matter.

  1. Complete as many of the activities as you can. Discuss and collaborate with your group. Become familiar with ALL the items even if you do not complete them today. Know what the questions are and what is being asked.
  2. Review, complete, evaluate (beginning, approaching, meeting) your DSN entries.
  3. Update your collaboration chart.
  4. Make sure your group’s data is entered for the density of water at room temperature, at a much hotter temperature, and at the temperature of ice water. Your name should be listed three times on the spreadsheet. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Lyrt1V9s-8hEwItK7j9mGx8msCqcO1DOM_dJLwEgd8Q/edit?usp=sharing     Look at all the data from the 3 science 8 classes. Think of a way to sort the densities by temperature. How closely do the data match the idea that there is a relationship between density and temperature? Explain.

5. Measure the masses of the fresh water and salt water beakers. Record the time that has passed since the set-up in hours. Is there a change in mass? How can this be explained? Estimate the surface area of the water that is exposed in the open beaker. ( A = πr2). Fill the data in the class spreadsheet at:

Freshwater: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1YWXASYCljFeesaVqbNPU5qjp6vGrc-Y-qd5v9I38a6g/edit?usp=sharing

Saturated saltwater: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1MBn_t_eNNlBfx-hqydE2gdxw8rrIdB8I-JH3BlCLGcY/edit?usp=sharing

Blogpost from previous class 27 August http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/26/27-august-science-8-water-change-of-phase-liquid-to-gas/

6. Make a temperature versus time graph for the boiling water experiment. This will be a line graph. Dr. F will demonstrate for one person from the table group who will then supervise graph construction for the other members of the group. Look at the graph and match points on the graph with your observations. What overall pattern do you notice in the shape of the line? What are some possible explanations?

7. Find and view videos on youtube.com or vimeo.com that describe the properties of water–you may use headphones/earbud. (Do not stray off this task by viewing non-related items.) You can even search for “Properties of water.” Use the captions, but beware that sometimes there are mistakes in the way captions are produced. Pick out your favorite. What do you learn? What questions do you have?

8. What progress have you made on examining, reading, reviewing links from previous blogposts and a couple of new ones for today?

9. Make a list of the properties and behaviors of water. Which have you observed firsthand? Begin thinking about how scientists explain these properties and behaviors. Record your questions.

 

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28 August Science 7 Review our study of motion, pose questions, discuss probes, check DSN, outside motion if time and weather permit

  1. Mindful moment.
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class. BE SURE YOU ARE ADDRESSING EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS.
  3. Preview blogpost for today.
  4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. BE SURE TO ADDRESS EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS. CONSIDER MAKING A TEMPLATE TO HELP YOU INCLUDE ALL PARTS OF THE ENTRY.
  5. YOUR Questions.

We will review the previous DSN entries with each group. What are some ways to help you keep your DSN complete and up-to-date?

Work on the probes from the previous blog. Discuss with your group. Be prepared to present your ideas, your reasoning, and your questions.

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/23/24-august-science-7-falling-again-half-the-distance-half-the-time/

Ideas introduced so far this year—–time to review and put thoughts together

Some big questions:

How do scientists observe, describe, measure, and analyze motion?

What are scientists’ ideas about motion?

What are scientists’ practices for investigating motion?

What are my personal ideas and practices? In what ways do they fit with scientific ideas and practices? Where might they conflict or compete? (Think of the lessons in the Backwards Bike.)

What motion phenomena have surprised me so far? Why do I think I was surprised?

Motion:

  • Position
  • Change in position
  • Time
  • Change in time
  • Change in position / change in time = average speed
  • Change in speed / change in time = acceleration
  • Humans may have ideas about motion that are held very strongly
  • Some people think or have thought that heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects
  • Through our simple experiments we have not observed that heavier objects and lighter objects fall at the same rate when air resistance does not affect the objects.
  • Galileo was able to observe “falling” by using an inclined ramp. He discovered that during acceleration due to gravity the distance travelled by an object changes with the square of the time. 1 distance unit in the first second; 4 distance units in the second second. 9 distance units in the third second. Thus a falling object gets faster according to a mathematical pattern.
  • Objects with mass have a tendency to stay in motion in a straight line if they are in motion or to remain at rest if they are at rest. This tendency is called inertia.
  • Motion is relative.
  • Measuring motion involves rulers and clocks and fair methods for determining when to start and stop the clocks.
  • Others?

Learning:

Write down some lessons about learning

  • from The Backwards Bike
  • from the way Richard Feynman’s father taught him
  • from your own experience so far in Sci 7

We will see about time left in the class and discuss an outside motion activity–staged races. Learning how to observe, measure, and graph motion.

A wonderful old film / video Frames of Reference about relative motion. See if you can figure these events out.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhVy1WG_lKQ

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27 August Science 8 Water–Change of phase–liquid to gas

  • Mindful moment.
  • Review entry from DSN from previous class.
  • ARE YOU KEEPING UP?
  • ARE YOU THINKING ABOUT THE PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF WATER?
  • ARE YOU BEGINNING TO THINK ABOUT HOW SCIENTISTS EXPLAIN THESE BEHAVIORS AND PROPERTIES USING THE BEHAVIORS AND PROPERTIES OF SUPER-TINY PARTICLES CALLED ATOMS (AND GROUPS OF ATOMS CALLED MOLECULES)?
  • ARE YOU THINKING ABOUT/ASKING ABOUT WHAT EVIDENCE THERE IS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES?
  • YOU SHOULD HAVE QUESTIONS AND SHOULD BE WRITING THEM DOWN.
  • EVERY TIME YOU ENCOUNTER WATER, THINK ABOUT THESE IDEAS AND QUESTIONS–WHEN IT RAINS, WHEN YOU DRINK, WHEN YOU SWEAT, WHEN YOU BATHE, WHEN YOU COOK, WHEN YOU URINATE, WHEN YOU WATER THE GARDEN, WHEN YOUR PET DRINKS, WHEN YOU SWIM, AND SO ON.
  • A formative assessment is coming soon.
  • Preview blogpost for today.
  • Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. Include the link to today’s blogpost.
  • What progress have you made on examining, reading, reviewing these links from previous blogposts?< https://chasingice.com/ > This documentary may support the claim that Science 8 could be the most important course of your life. Let’s revisit this claim throughout the year. Small, Yes, but Mighty: The Molecule Called Water < https://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/10/science/10angi.html>. See “A Preliminary Remark: Water and Friends” from Reactions–The Private Life of Atoms by Peter Atkins (we have some copies in class for you to examine). Also this link: < https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B4DPwlouN3dIZS1BbHN5NG9rWU0?usp=sharing >.
  • YOUR Questions.
  • * * * * *

Work in groups of 3 (self-selected). Update your collaboration list.

Examine the apparatus in photo below. Decide with your partners how you will replicate the set-up. Listen to instructions in class and observe the demonstration.

 

Safety.

  • Electric hotplate (110 volt). Make sure cord is placed so that no one trips over it. Examine the plug and switch. Turn off the switch in the event of a problem.
  • Hot water. Hot glass. Hot hotplate. Be careful. Use tongs to move beaker with hot water.
  • Wear eye protection.
  • Make sure the work area is clear.
  • Get your set-up approved before turning on the heat.
  • Explain your thinking about the following in your DSN entry for the day.
  • If you begin heating the water in the beaker and test tube, what do you think will happen to the temperature?
  • What do you think will happen to the water in the beaker and in the test tube?
  • Predict the sequence of events (things you expect to see) as you heat the water.
  • Draw a prediction (sketch) graph showing Temperature on the vertical axis and Time on the horizontal.
  • Create a table or spreadsheet to record your data and observations.
  • Heat until you reach the endpoint.
  • Listen carefully to the instructions.
  • Observe the videos below.
Time (min) Temp. deg C appearance of water (describe in detail) in beaker appearance of water (describe in detail) in testtube
0
1
2
3
4
5 (continue until the endpoint)

See the video at this link. This shows what happens when you reach the endpoint. The inverted test tube become filled 1/2 way with vapor.

At this point you must quickly remove the beaker using the tongs. You should have practiced this move earlier. Move the beaker to the table and immediately observe the test tube and the temperature. Turn off the hot plate and unplug it. Make sure no one is burned/scalded.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1OIqh8ulm3udA2q0RDFDz2F0fs4RaqbDW/view?usp=sharing

This is a video of what to look for after the beaker has been removed from the hotplate.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1BdAXgXbV_l-jmAMo90HkWKCrxZTAyqCO/view?usp=sharing

Make sure all the data and procedure notes are complete and shared among your group. Think of what the data show. Record your ideas and your questions.

Set up the following experiments before the end of the period.

A. Label a clean 200 ml beaker with a piece of masking tape. Write your names, your period, fresh water. Weigh the empty labeled beaker and record. Measure 100 ml of tap water and pour into the beaker. Weigh the beaker and water and record. Note the date and time. Set the beaker on the back counter. We will weigh it again in the next class. Write what you expect to happen and why.

B. Repeat procedure above except use saturated NaCl solution. Label the beaker before you weigh it with your names, your period and NaCl solution. (Na = sodium; Cl = chlorine; NaCl = table salt; saturation is 35 grams of NaCl in 100 ml water at 20 deg. C) Weigh the empty labeled beaker and record. Measure 100 ml of saturated salt water and pour into the beaker. Weigh the beaker and water and record. Note the date and time. Set the beaker on the back counter. We will weigh it again in the next class. Write what you expect to happen and why.

 

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24 August Science 7 Falling again–half the distance? half the time? thought experiments and probes–what do you know? what do you think?

  1. Mindful moment.
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class. BE SURE YOU ARE ADDRESSING EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS.
  3. Preview blogpost for today.
  4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. BE SURE TO ADDRESS EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS. CONSIDER MAKING A TEMPLATE TO HELP YOU INCLUDE ALL PARTS OF THE ENTRY. This is the link to today’s blogpost: http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/23/24-august-science-7-falling-again-half-the-distance-half-the-time/
  5. YOUR Questions.
  • * * * * *

Let’s try the experiment we talked about during the last class–Finding the time it takes for a lump of clay to fall from the top of the stairs to the ground. We’ll measure the distance. Do 5 trials with 5 timers for each trial. Then time the fall from half the height for 5 trials and 5 timers for each distance. We’ll need timers, people to measure the height, record keepers, photographers, videographers, runners. Everyone should find a job.

How do you expect the two times to compare? Explain your reasoning.

For the drop from the top of the stairs–where is the clay lump when half the time of the trip has passed? How much time has passed when the clay reaches half the height of the fall?

How would you coordinate dropping two balls from different heights so that they would hit at the same time?

 

See charts below (thanks to our recorders Kyra and Arjan): Timer and Trials are reversed from period 3 to period 4.

Median of medians:

  • 9 meters 1.27 seconds for period 3; 1.23 seconds for period 4.
  • 4.55 meters .84 seconds for period 3; .90 seconds for period 4.

  • * * * * *

Do you think this cartoon is funny? Why or why not?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What do you know about swings? The number of swings in a period of time (say 30 seconds) is called frequency. What can you do to change the frequency of a swing by several swings in 30 seconds? Have you tried this before? How would the frequency of Dr. F compare to a 7th grader on the same swing? Explain your reasoning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Try these probes and thought experiments. Discuss with your table group.

howfar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* * * * *

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23 August Science 8 Melting ice and change of mass–the histogram; Density of water and temperature; Evaporation

  1. Mindful moment.
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class. BE SURE YOU ARE ADDRESSING EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS.
  3. Preview blogpost for today.
  4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. BE SURE TO ADDRESS EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS. CONSIDER MAKING A TEMPLATE TO HELP YOU INCLUDE ALL PARTS OF THE ENTRY. This is the link to today’s blogpost: http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/22/23-august-science-8-density-of-water-and-temperature-evaporation/
  5. YOUR Questions.
  • * * * * *

A. Histogram–frequency distribution graph

  • Put the values in order. (At this point you can find the range, the median (middle value), mean, and mode.)
  • Make convenient intervals (bins).
  • Sort the values into the bins.
  • Pencil ONLY on graph paper until graph is checked and double-checked. (Don’t waste graph paper by using ink prematurely.)
  • Label the axes with the variable names and units.
  • Scale (put numbers on marks–not spaces) the vertical axis for number of results.
  • Scale(put numbers on marks–not spaces) the horizontal axis conveniently so that the boundary values of the bins are easily found.
  • The scales do not have to be the same. Scale means–how much is 1  division on the graph paper worth. 1 division = x units.
  • The scale must be consistent across the page. Do not change or break the scale.
  • The scale should accommodate all the data (unless there is a wildly extreme point that is out of range of all the others).
  • The scale should be convenient–easy to use. If you need to do arithmetic to read the value of a point, the scale may not be convenient. Here are scale factors to use: let 1 division on the graph paper = 1, 2, 5, 10 or .1, .2, .5 or 10, 20, 50, or others following this pattern. Avoid 3 and 4. Do not say __ divisions = 1 unit. Always say 1 division = ___ units.
  • The scales should make the graph as large as possible (take up at least 1/2 the page).
  • Draw bars that span the intervals, “stacking” each result in each interval.
  • Title: Change in mass of an ice cube before and after it melts

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1XoeRplVMlqyd0tvWufl7NHmIDAnXRjIRfunBhZYUMn8/edit?usp=sharing

Read Fundamental-questions-about-matter — a concise outline of the atomic theory of matter. Interpret the histogram in terms of the atomic theory of matter. The idea that the total number of atoms remain the same in a closed systems before and after a physical or chemical change is a fundamental part. Each atom has a fixed mass. The idea that the total mass in a closed system remains constant is called “The Law of Conservation of Mass.”

B. What do you notice about the values for the density of water (tap water)? Most determinations were done at the temperature of the water from the tap. One group looked at ice water. Could you use a histogram to help decide on the density of water? Try it?

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Lyrt1V9s-8hEwItK7j9mGx8msCqcO1DOM_dJLwEgd8Q/edit?usp=sharing

C. How does the density of liquid water vary with temperature?

We will try a few methods to address this question:

Examine the picture closely. Both cylinders have been filled to 100 ml of hot water. Both cylinders are stoppered (to reduce any evaporation). Both cylinders are allowed to cool. One cylinder sits on the balance. The other cylinder with the thermometer sits nearby on the table. Because both cylinders are of similar make and model and both contain water at the same starting temperature, we make the assumption that they cool off at very similar rates. (Is this assumption justified? How could you check?) The temperature, the mass, and the volume are recorded at regular intervals–every minute, for example. What do you expect to happen?

D. Find the density of a sample of ice water. Take the temperature when you finish. Enter your data on the spreadsheet (above).

E. Find the density of a sample of very hot water. Dr. F will pour the water into a beaker at your table. Use the hot pad / glove and a dropper to measure 100 ml. Find the mass as soon as you can while the water is hot. Then take the temperature. Enter your data on the spreadsheet (above).

F. Can you detect a trend when you compare the densities you have determined at 3 different temperatures?

G. A big puzzle is how/why the density lessens when liquid water freezes–that is, turns into a solid–ice. What do you think the density of ice is? Ice floats in liquid water at all temperatures–that means ice is less dense than liquid water at any temperature.

H. Label a clean 200 ml beaker with a piece of masking tape. Write your names, your period, fresh water. Weigh the empty labeled beaker and record. Measure 100 ml of tap water and pour into the beaker. Weigh the beaker and water and record. Note the date and time. Set the beaker on the back counter. We will weigh it again in the next class. Write what you expect to happen and why.

I. Repeat procedure D except use saturated NaCl solution. Label the beaker before you weigh it with your names, your period and NaCl solution. (Na = sodium; Cl = chlorine; NaCl = table salt; saturation is 35 grams of NaCl in 100 ml water at 20 deg. C) Weigh the empty labeled beaker and record. Measure 100 ml of saturated salt water and pour into the beaker. Weigh the beaker and water and record. Note the date and time. Set the beaker on the back counter. We will weigh it again in the next class. Write what you expect to happen and why.

J. Review this website: < https://chasingice.com/ > This documentary may support the claim that Science 8 could be the most important course of your life. Let’s revisit this claim throughout the year.

 

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22 August Science 7 More falling–history of science–teaching and learning–falling in cartoons

  1. Mindful moment.
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class. BE SURE YOU ARE ADDRESSING EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS.
  3. Preview blogpost for today.
  4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. BE SURE TO ADDRESS EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS. CONSIDER MAKING A TEMPLATE TO HELP YOU INCLUDE ALL PARTS OF THE ENTRY. This is the link to today’s blogpost: http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/21/22-august-science-7-more-falling-history-of-science-teaching-and-learning-falling-in-cartoons/
  5. Pictures: Pd 3 10:30-10:45. Pd 4 12:05-12:15. We’ll go to the couch area in 3s.
  6. YOUR Questions.
  • * * * * *

Dropping the 2 lumps of clay:

Some varying ideas and observations of results. Summarize.

To what degree is air resistance a factor? What if you could separate the factor of air resistance from the factors of falling?

https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nvmm-math-fallingbodies/galileos-falling-bodies/#.W3uqB5MzZQI

http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/zpfs8mn#orb-banner

An important property of matter in motion:

The Pleasure of Finding Things Out–Interview with Nobel Prize Winner in Physics, Richard Feynman. Start at 3:50.

https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x24gwgc

Difference between knowing the name of something and knowing something

Cartoon gravity . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRSHzenjiNA

How do things fall in the Roadrunner and Coyote universe? What are the rules of motion in the alternative reality of cartoons?

Let’s time a lump of clay from two heights (one height is approximately twice the other height). How will the times compare?

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21 August Science 8–Matter–Properties and physical behavior of water

  1. Mindful moment. (Water and Friends)
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class. BE SURE YOU ARE ADDRESSING EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS.
  3. Preview blogpost for today.
  4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. BE SURE TO ADDRESS EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS. CONSIDER MAKING A TEMPLATE TO HELP YOU INCLUDE ALL PARTS OF THE ENTRY. This is the link to today’s blogpost: <http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/20/21-august-science-8/>
  5. Announcement: Pictures today. 3 students at a time, by roster. When student returns, next 3 students go. Our times are Pd 5 = 9-9:30; Pd 7 1-1:20; Pd 8 2:10-2:35
  6. YOUR Questions.
  • * * * * *

Work with your most recent group.

Make a document in your DSN (outside of the matter folder) with the title “Classmates I have worked with.” Make a table with this information and keep it up to date:

  • Names of partners
  • Topic/activity
  • Dates
  • Links to class blogposts, to DSN entries, and shared group documents, images, data
  • Notes about learning–concepts, skills/practices, collaboration, group function

* * * * *

Continue working on the questions from the last class (this is our plan from last Friday–the surprise holiday) and some new related questions. If you have questions of your own, please pose them for the class.

Be sure to do question D first–so that you have time for the ice to melt. Be sure to wipe off condensation from the outside of the jar. Then do question C. One person in your group will be given editing rights to enter your group’s data.

After C and D, try any other question (s). Work carefully. Work neatly. Record completely and systematically.

A. What happens when a piece of floating ice melts in a container of water?(Many people expected that the water level would rise. Can you explain their reasoning?)(S0me people said that the water would not rise. Do you follow their thinking?)

B. What determines whether something floats or sinks?

C. Determine the density of water. How would you do that? (Hint: Density is the mass of a sample of a substance and volume is the space taken up by the same sample. Mass is measured on a balance and volume of a liquid can be measured in a measuring cylinder. Ask if you need clarification on the technique.) Discuss with your group. ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

Enter data on the class spreadsheet (ask for editing): https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Lyrt1V9s-8hEwItK7j9mGx8msCqcO1DOM_dJLwEgd8Q/edit?usp=sharing

D. What happens to the mass of a cube of ice when it melts? What is your explanation for what you expect? Discuss with your group. Make notes of your ideas. Test your ideas. Ask if you would like to discuss the technique. There are some aspects that can affect the results. ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE. 

Procedure notes: Record all steps and all data with units and labels. Use a small canning jar. Get the empty mass of the jar and lid. Put a measurable amount of ice in the jar and take the mass. Set the jar aside. When the ice has melted, wipe any condensation off the outside of the jar and off the balance. This condensed water from the atmosphere is not part of the water that made the ice. Then weight the jar, lid, and melted ice.

Enter data on the class spreadsheet (ask for editing): https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1XoeRplVMlqyd0tvWufl7NHmIDAnXRjIRfunBhZYUMn8/edit?usp=sharing

E. How could we relate the question about ice floating to icebergs? The icebergs that calve from glaciers are fresh water. If they fall into the ocean, they are floating in salt water. How salty is the sea? Are some areas of the oceans saltier than others? What can you find out. Discuss with your group. Will a piece of fresh water ice float differently in saltwater than in fresh water? What do you expect and can you explain your thinking? Can you test your ideas? Be sure to careful make note of what you do and what results you observe. ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

F. Here is an old puzzle? Which melts faster: An ice cube in salt water or an ice cube in fresh water. Of course, the ice cubes would need to be the same mass, volume, and shape, and the container of salt water would need to be the same temperature as the container of fresh water. Try to conduct a fair test of your ideas? ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

G. What about the density of salt water? How could you determine the value? Do you think the concentration of salt water would affect the density? How might you express how salty a sample of salt water is? ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

H. What other questions about water occur to you? Any thoughts about evaporation for example?

I. Here is a very nice essay about water by the science writer Natalie Angier. What do you think. Read it and write a response. Is there anything in the article that sheds light for you about the questions we have been investigating?

Small, Yes, but Mighty: The Molecule Called Water

https://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/10/science/10angi.html

See “A Preliminary Remark: Water and Friends” from Reactions–The Private Life of Atoms by Peter Atkins (we have some copies in class for you to examine). Also this link: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B4DPwlouN3dIZS1BbHN5NG9rWU0?usp=sharing

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20 August Science 7 Motion–Falling masses

  1. Mindful moment.
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class. BE SURE YOU ARE ADDRESSING EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS.
  3. Preview blogpost for today.
  4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. BE SURE TO ADDRESS EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS. CONSIDER MAKING A TEMPLATE TO HELP YOU INCLUDE ALL PARTS OF THE ENTRY. Here is the link to today’s blogpost: <http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/19/20-august-science-7-motion-falling-masses/>
  5. YOUR Questions.
  • * * * * *

Work with your most recent group.

Make a document in your DSN (outside of the motion folder) with the title “Classmates I have worked with.” Make a table with this information and keep it up to date:

  • Names of partners
  • Topic/activity
  • Dates
  • Links to class blogposts, to DSN entries, and shared group documents, images, data
  • Notes about learning–concepts, skills/practices, collaboration, group function

25 minutesFinish investigating the question: How does the “falling” compare between two lumps of clay with different masses dropped from the same height?

  • What is your group focused on?
  • What are possible things to examine?
  • Time of descent?
  • Speed of descent?
  • Is speed constant or does it change?
  • If it changes, in what manner does it change?
  • How “hard” do the two masses of clay hit when they land?
  • The lump that has the greater mass is heavier. That means its weight is greater. Weight is the force of gravity. How can you explain the results in light of the different weights or forces of gravity on each lump of clay?
  • Did your group try to determine the effect of “air or wind resistance?”
  • What heights did you try?
  • How many trials did you conduct for each treatment?
  • How did you ensure fair starts? fair stops? fair observations? In other words how did you make sure you conducted fair tests?

25 minutes Prepare an informal presentation of your findings. Everyone in the group participates.

25 minutes

Each group presents. Time for questions and discussion.

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17 August Science 8

  1. Mindful moment.
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class.

Digital Science Notebook (DSN)

An entry needed for every class

to help you

  • Remember
  • Think
  • Learn

The entry should be dated and titled. Follow guidelines for organizing entries in topic folders AND for naming files.

Each entry should include sentences, data and images.

 See the next seven items:

  1. Normal notes you would take. Information from the board, introductory instructions, etc.
  2. What you/we did
  3. What you/we saw
  4. What you/we talked about
  5. A sketch that will help you remember and think about something significant from the class. (It could be a sketch of a thing, a process, or an idea.)
  6. A photo that will help you remember and think about something significant from the class. (A photo different from a photo of notes on the board.)
  7. What you think and wonder regarding 1,2,3, 4,5, and 6 above. What are your questions, ideas and reflections? (You can write about what is significant in the sketch and photo. You can be creative, too. Try a poem or essay from time to time.)

3. Preview blogpost for today.

4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry.

5. YOUR Questions.

Continue working on the questions from the last class and some new related questions. If you have questions of your own, please pose them for the class.

Be sure to do question C first. Then do question D. One person in your group will be given editing rights to enter your group’s data.

After C and D, try any other question (s). Work carefully. Work neatly. Record completely and systematically.

A. What happens when a piece of floating ice melts in a container of water?(Many people expected that the water level would rise. Can you explain their reasoning?)(S0me people said that the water would not rise. Do you follow their thinking?)

B. What determines whether something floats or sinks?

C. Determine the density of water. How would you do that? (Hint: Density is the mass of a sample of a substance and volume is the space taken up by the same sample. Mass is measured on a balance and volume of a liquid can be measured in a measuring cylinder. Ask if you need clarification on the technique.) Discuss with your group. ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

Enter data on the class spreadsheet (ask for editing): https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Lyrt1V9s-8hEwItK7j9mGx8msCqcO1DOM_dJLwEgd8Q/edit?usp=sharing

E. What happens to the mass of a cube of ice when it melts? What is your explanation for what you expect? Discuss with your group. Make notes of your ideas. Test your ideas. Ask if you would like to discuss the technique. There are some aspects that can affect the results. ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

Enter data on the class spreadsheet (ask for editing): https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1XoeRplVMlqyd0tvWufl7NHmIDAnXRjIRfunBhZYUMn8/edit?usp=sharing

F. How could we relate the question about ice floating to icebergs? The icebergs that calve from glaciers are fresh water. If they fall into the ocean, they are floating in salt water. How salty is the sea? Are some ares of the oceans saltier than others? What can you find out. Discuss with your group. Will a piece of fresh water ice float differently in saltwater than in fresh water? What do you expect and can you explain your thinking? Can you test your ideas? Be sure to careful make note of what you do and what results you observe. ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

G. Here is an old puzzle? Which melts faster: An ice cube in salt water or an ice cube in fresh water. Of course, the ice cubes would need to be the same mass, volume, and shape, and the container of salt water would need to be the same temperature as the container of fresh water. Try to conduct a fair test of your ideas? ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

H. What about the density of salt water? How could you determine the value? Do you think the concentration of salt water would affect the density? How might you express how salty a sample of salt water is? ALWAYS WRITE EXPECTATIONS BEFORE CONDUCTING A PROCEDURE.

I. What other questions about water occur to you? Any thoughts about evaporation for example?

J. Here is a very nice essay about water by the science writer Natalie Angier. What do you think. Read it and write a response. Is there anything in the article that sheds light for you about the questions we have been investigating?

Small, Yes, but Mighty: The Molecule Called Water

https://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/10/science/10angi.html

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16 August Science 7 Motion and Learning–Dr. Frazier’s speed on a bike, the backwards bike, a motion puzzle (investigation, fair tests, evidence, and more)

  1. Mindful moment.
  2. Review entry from DSN from previous class. BE SURE YOU ARE ADDRESSING EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS.

Digital Science Notebook (DSN)

An entry needed for every class

to help you

  • Remember
  • Think
  • Learn

The entry should be dated and titled. Follow guidelines for organizing entries in topic folders AND for naming files.

Each entry should include sentences, data and images.

 See the next seven items:

  1. Normal notes you would take. Information from the board, introductory instructions, etc.
  2. What you/we did
  3. What you/we saw
  4. What you/we talked about
  5. A sketch that will help you remember and think about something significant from the class. (It could be a sketch of a thing, a process, or an idea.)
  6. A photo that will help you remember and think about something significant from the class. (A photo different from a photo of notes on the board.)
  7. What you think and wonder regarding 1,2,3, 4,5, and 6 above. What are your questions, ideas and reflections? (You can write about what is significant in the sketch and photo. You can be creative, too. Try a poem or essay from time to time.)

3. Preview blogpost for today.

4. Set up entry for today’s DSN entry. BE SURE TO ADDRESS EACH OF THE 7 ITEMS. CONSIDER MAKING A TEMPLATE TO HELP YOU INCLUDE ALL PARTS OF THE ENTRY.

5. YOUR Questions.

  • * * * * *

Visit the previous blogpost–start with Dr. F’s route map to the school by bicycle. What distance did your group find for this route? Did you check to see that you used the same route?

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/08/12/13-august-science-7-motion-continued/

I used the Eicher City Map: Delhi and a ruler. I measured the centimeter distances of each street along the way and added them together. I then used the scale on the maps where 8 cm : 1000 meters. By this method, I found the distance of 6.8 km. That is a little further than I thought, but I may have been thinking of the distance by walking, when I use a different route.

Let us discuss what it actually means to figure the “average speed” on the day when the 6.8 km took me 22 minutes and on the day later in the week when the same route/distance took 19 minutes. Since we want to report the speeds in standard units (like km/hour), I had to find out what fractions of an hour 22 minutes and 19 minutes are.

Remember that (average) speed is the distance covered divided by the time elapsed for the trip–written as distance/time = speed. You will need to think very carefully about the meaning of average in this case. It can be a source of confusion for beginning students of motion.

Extension: What would a distance vs. time graph look like of Dr. F’s actual travel to school? What would a distance vs. time graph look like of Dr. F’s travel to school at the overall average speed? (Distance on vertical axis and time on horizontal axis.) Draw these two situations as “sketch “graphs” in your DSN entry.

  • * * * * *

Let’s watch The Backwards Bike. This video is about two things–the motion of a bicycle AND learning about motion. Think about what the presenter says carefully. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFzDaBzBlL0>. If you do not understand something, feel free to watch the video again. Compare the example described by Destin Sandlin to examples of learning / unlearning / confusion / understanding from your own experience in any area.

  • * * * * *

A Motion Puzzle

If you drop two pieces of clay that have different masses from the same height, how will the “falling” compare for the two pieces of clay?

What do you expect? Explain. ALWAYS WRITE WHAT YOU EXPECT BEFORE CONDUCTING ANY TRIALS / EXPERIMENTS.

In your DSN entry for today write what you expect the result(s) to be and why. Make sketches to indicate your thinking about the possible results.

Investigate the “falling” for two lumps of clay that have different masses in groups of 3 (we will discuss how to form the groups).

  • Keep a record of your group’s discussion. (Decisions? Ideas? Things to try? Things to notice? Count? Measure?)
  • How will you try to test the ideas your group has? (How will you make sure any tests are “fair?”
  • Keep a record of the results of the things you try. (Verbal descriptions, measurements, photos, videos, other.)
  • Be prepared to share your procedures and findings.
  • Be prepared to demonstrate.
  • Be prepared to discuss the ideas of classmates.

Extension: Find out what you can about Galileo and his thinking on “falling bodies.” What distinguished Galileo’s methods for investigating physical questions from methods used earlier?

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