28 November Science 8 Astronomy–Making a scale model of the solar system

ASTRONOMY

Complete as much of the following as you can. Before the end of class today, be sure to see the description of the summative assessment project at the end of this post–Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance.

  • Answer the following in your digital science notebook–in the astronomy folder:
  • What do you already know about the earth, the moon, the sun, the planets, the stars, the universe? Do NOT look up any answers. Respond based on what you currently know or think you know.
  • These questions are important to think about and to write about: How do you know? How do we know? How do astronomers know? What are the methods of observation and argument?
  • Answer the following questions in your digital science notebook/take the survey and record your responses in your dsn: 
  • https://www.learner.org/teacherslab/pup/studentquestions.html
  • (You may use your own headphones for the next part, or, if they are available, check them out. If you do not have headphones, keep the volume low so others are not disturbed.)
  • Watch the following video about students’ ideas in astronomy: A Private Universe http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=9
  • Write a summary in your DSN. List your questions. What are your private conceptions?

Watch the following video. Write a summary in your DSN. Explain the procedure used. List any questions you have. Read about making the video:

Watch the following videos and write summaries in your DSN–

History of Astronomy (browse the following. Be sure to examine the sites and view videos as we take up our study of astronomy).

See the description of the Summative Assessment Project below. You will build the model in groups, but the assessment project will be completed as individuals. We will use the sidewalk along the street along the west side of the school. We will begin in the next class. Be prepared.

mapschool

Each class will use San Martin Marg for the site of their models. San Martin Marg runs along the west side of the school. In the picture above, note the scale at the bottom right of the image. You can print this image to help you construct your model.

kcsolarmodel

“The exhibition begins with the sun, located at 13th and Baltimore, with the display running south along Baltimore through the Crossroads District, then ending in front of Union Station. The Voyage experience takes approximately thirty minutes to complete, walking at a leisurely pace from the sun to Pluto.”

http://voyagesolarsystem.org/community-network/kansas-city-kansas-voyage-mark-i/

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 17-18 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

Groups prepare and construct the model. Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.
  2. Produce in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard.
  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.
  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale.
  5. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) the directions and inclinations of orbits. (Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.)
8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models
8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

 

Posted in Science 8 | Leave a comment

27 November Science 7 Energy and Work–Simple Machines as entry point to the ideas

Work in groups from today’s class. Show Dr. F your work on the following and then work on the puzzle at the end of this post.

Science 7 Pulleys–measuring work

In today’s DSN entry, begin with 3-5 sentences about your thoughts on the meaning of energy in science. What do you think are the most important ideas? Why?

Watch this short music video. How do you think energy is involved?

In order to build our ideas about energy, we will examine how forces are applied in pulley systems and how much work goes in and how much comes out. (Energy is the capacity to do work.)

Recall the different relationships between the fundamental quantities: mass, space (distance), time

  • Velocity (speed with direction) = distance/time (Meters/Second)
  • Acceleration = Velocity/time (Meters / Second²)
  • Force = Mass x Acceleration (Kilogram x Meters / Second²) (Newtons)
  • Momentum = Mass x Velocity (Kilogram x Meters / Second)
  • Pressure = Force / Area (Newton / Meter²) (Pascal) (Pounds per square inch-psi; and Bar are units of pressure that are not part of the scientific metric unit system)
  • Work = Force x Distance (Energy is the capacity to do work). (Joules)
  • Power = Work/Time (Force x Distance / Time) (Joules/Second or Watts)

Pulleys are used to make work seem easier.  There are two ways in which a pulley can make work easier.

  1. Pulleys can change the direction of the force
  2. Pulleys can multiply the force applied by spreading it over a longer distance.

There are three main types of pulleys: single – fixed pulley,  single moveable pulley, and   block and tackle – at least one fixed pulley and one moveable pulley in a system.

There are many online references for pulleys. Here is one: http://www.ropebook.com/information/pulley-systems

Build and operate the three systems (see photos). Examine and record the work input and work output of each pulley system and compare them to one another.

PROCEDURE:  Single fixed pulley (see photos)

  1. You will first need to set up a single fixed pulley system as directed by your teacher.
  2. Determine the weight of the object being lifted by attaching it to a Newton spring scale and recording this value in row B.
  3. Attach the weight to one end of a string and run it up and around a single fixed pulley attached to the top bar. Attach the short end of the string to spring scale.
  4. Using a meter stick, note the height at which the spring scale is attached to the string.  Pull on the scale so that it moves at a constant speed and record the reading on the scale in row E.
  5. Move the weight being lifted up .1m (10 cm) from the tabletop to the bottom of the object.  Record this in row C.
  6.  Determine the distance that the scale was moved by subtracting the final reading from the initial reading on the meter stick.  Record this value in row F.
  7. Calculate out the remaining rows using the formulas provided and your data.

Single moveable pulley (see photos)

  1. Tie one end of a string to the top bar.  Run the string through a pulley and attach the other end to a spring scale.
  2. Connect the pulley to the object being lifted and repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the data table

Block and tackle pulley system (see photos)

  1. Tie a pulley to the top bar.  Loop a string through this pulley.  Tie one end of the string to the top of a second pulley and take the other end and loop it around the second pulley and then tie it to the spring scale.  Connect the weight to the second pulley
  2. Repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the  data table

Complete the following data table:

A

  Single fixed pulley Single moveable pulley Block and tackle

B

Resistance force-Weight of object being lifted(N)      

C

Resistance distance -Height that the object is lifted(m)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

D

Work output (J)              = force x distance(B x C)      

E

Effort force (N) (Reading from spring scale as string is pulled)      

F

Effort Distance    How far scale is moved (m)      

G

Work input (J)    = force x distance (E x F)      

H

Mechanical advantage (B/E)      

I

Efficiency = work output/work input(D/G) x 100      

1.     Which pulley system required the greatest effort force?  Explain why.

2.     Which type of pulley had the greatest mechanical advantage?  Explain why this is.

(HINT:  Think of which system you had to pull the most string through)

3.     What would be an easier way to determine the mechanical advantage of a pulley system?

(HINT:  Think of how many strings are holding up the weight)

4.     Which pulley system was the most efficient?   Is this what you expected?

5.     Explain the best way that a mechanic could pull out a large truck engine by himself using the least possible amount of force.

6.     Try another system with more than 3 pulleys. Record your ideas and your results.

7.     In what sense does the pulley make the work easier?

8.     Design a simple machine (which works) where the input work is less than the output work. If this is not possible, explain why you think so.

A single pulley. Input force is directed down, weight moves up.

Single moveable pulley. Lifting force moves weight upward.

Block and tackle. One moveable pulley and one fixed pulley.  Downward input force lifts weight upward.

Some different ways to think about energy and energy transformations; the development of ideas about energy:

http://www.physics4kids.com/files/thermo_laws.html

http://education.seattlepi.com/everyday-examples-first-second-laws-thermodynamics-4740.html

http://nmsolar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Energy_Concepts_Primer.pdf

https://www.newscientist.com/blogs/culturelab/2010/07/the-discovery-of-energy.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/ancestors-einstein.html

  • Dr. F will assign you an energy-work puzzle that involves motion and energy. Be prepared as a group to solve the puzzle.

  • (What is a calorie and who invented the idea: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/11/061120060301.htm ?)

  • (Who invented the term work? Who was James Prescott Joule and what did he try to find out about the relation between work and energy/heat?)

  • See this passage from Wikipedia to help you think about the puzzle <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calorie>:A calorie is a unit of energy. Various definitions exist but fall into two broad categories. The first, the small calorie, or gram calorie (symbol: cal), is defined as the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.[1] The second is the large calorie or kilogram calorie (symbol: Cal), also known as the food calorie and similar names,[2] is defined in terms of the kilogram rather than the gram. It is equal to 1000 small calories or 1 kilocalorie (symbol: kcal).[1]Although these units relate to the metric system, all of them have been considered obsolete in science since the adoption of the SI system.[3] The unit of energy in the International System of Units is the joule. One small calorie is approximately 4.2 joules (so one large calorie is about 4.2 kilojoules). The factor used to convert calories to joules at a given temperature is numerically equivalent to the specific heat capacity of water expressed in joules per kelvin per gram or per kilogram. The precise conversion factor depends on the definition adopted.In spite of its non-official status, the large calorie is still widely used as a unit of food energy. The small calorie is also often used for measurements in chemistry, although the amounts involved are typically recorded in kilocalories.
Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

22 November Science 8 Reflection–Astronomy

  • On lined paper with your name and period, respond to the following. Be sure to turn in a paper copy and to upload a digital copy (photo) to your DSN. Use the following prompts to guide your reflection:
  • Provide several sentences about your learning in science this year. Be specific. These should be things that you would like quoted as a part of report card comments about you.
  • How has your thinking changed? What has been the most amazing thing that you learned? What ideas have you found particularly challenging? Why do you think they are challenging?
  • Talk about your learning habits AND about the ideas and practices in science.
  • Refer to your digital science notebook–to what extent do you keep it complete and up-to-date. Describe the way you use your DSN in projects and assessments.
  • How do you approach an assessment project? For example, how did you make sure that you tried to show how the conservation of mass applied to the reaction you examined and how did you make sure you explained that in your final product?
  • What would you do differently in your assessment project if you were to start over? Explain.
  • How important is it to you to become good at investigation and scientific thinking? Explain.
  • What do you see as the next steps in getting better at scientific investigation and thinking?

***********

ASTRONOMY

Watch the following video. Write a summary. Explain the procedure used. List any questions you have. Read about making the video:

Watch the following videos and write a summary–

History of Astronomy

http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~thompson/1101/lecture_aristarchus.html

Aristarchus

http://www.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses/astro201/aristarchus.htm

Eratosthenes

https://www.windows2universe.org/?page=/citizen_science/myw/w2u_eratosthenes_calc_earth_size.html

Mapping from The Ring of Truth   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRY2SkMTafc

Galileo: Height of mountains on the moon https://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/esplora/cannocchiale/dswmedia/simula/esimula1_1.html

Galileo: The Stary Messenger from The Ascent of Man  http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x334243

Bad Astronomy  http://www.badastronomy.com/bad/index.html

 

Posted in Science 8 | Leave a comment

21 November Science 7 Reflections/Comments and then: Energy and Work

Reflections (on lined paper with your name and period ALSO uploaded in your DSN)

  • Provide several sentences about your learning in science this year. Be specific. These should be things that you would like quoted as a part of report card comments about you.
  • How has your thinking changed? What has been the most amazing thing that you learned? What ideas have you found particularly challenging? Why do you think they are challenging?
  • Talk about your learning habits AND about the ideas and practices in science.
  • Refer to your digital science notebook–to what extent do you keep it complete and up-to-date. Describe the way you use your DSN in projects and assessments.
  • How do you approach an assessment project? For example, how did you make sure that you tried to show how the conservation of momentum applied to the catapult and projectile and how did you make sure you explained that in the summary?
  • What would you do differently in your assessment project if you were to start over? Explain.
  • How important is it to you to become good at investigation and scientific thinking?” Explain.
  • What do you see as the next steps in getting better at scientific investigation and thinking?

Science 7 Pulleys–measuring work

In today’s DSN entry, begin with 3-5 sentences about your thoughts on the meaning of energy in science. What do you think are the most important ideas? Why?

Watch this short music video. How do you think energy is involved?

In order to build our ideas about energy, we will examine how forces are applied in pulley systems and how much work goes in and how much comes out. (Energy is the capacity to do work.)

Recall the different relationships between the fundamental quantities: mass, space (distance), time

  • Velocity (speed with direction) = distance/time (Meters/Second)
  • Acceleration = Velocity/time (Meters / Second²)
  • Force = Mass x Acceleration (Kilogram x Meters / Second²) (Newtons)
  • Momentum = Mass x Velocity (Kilogram x Meters / Second)
  • Pressure = Force / Area (Newton / Meter²) (Pascal) (Pounds per square inch-psi; and Bar are units of pressure that are not part of the scientific metric unit system)
  • Work = Force x Distance (Energy is the capacity to do work). (Joules)
  • Power = Work/Time (Force x Distance / Time) (Joules/Second or Watts)

Pulleys are used to make work seem easier.  There are two ways in which a pulley can make work easier.

  1. Pulleys can change the direction of the force
  2. Pulleys can multiply the force applied by spreading it over a longer distance.

There are three main types of pulleys: single – fixed pulley,  single moveable pulley, and   block and tackle – at least one fixed pulley and one moveable pulley in a system.

There are many online references for pulleys. Here is one: http://www.ropebook.com/information/pulley-systems

Build and operate the three systems (see photos). Examine and record the work input and work output of each pulley system and compare them to one another.

PROCEDURE:  Single fixed pulley (see photos)

  1. You will first need to set up a single fixed pulley system as directed by your teacher.
  2. Determine the weight of the object being lifted by attaching it to a Newton spring scale and recording this value in row B.
  3. Attach the weight to one end of a string and run it up and around a single fixed pulley attached to the top bar. Attach the short end of the string to spring scale.
  4. Using a meter stick, note the height at which the spring scale is attached to the string.  Pull on the scale so that it moves at a constant speed and record the reading on the scale in row E.
  5. Move the weight being lifted up .1m (10 cm) from the tabletop to the bottom of the object.  Record this in row C.
  6.  Determine the distance that the scale was moved by subtracting the final reading from the initial reading on the meter stick.  Record this value in row F.
  7. Calculate out the remaining rows using the formulas provided and your data.

Single moveable pulley (see photos)

  1. Tie one end of a string to the top bar.  Run the string through a pulley and attach the other end to a spring scale.
  2. Connect the pulley to the object being lifted and repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the data table

Block and tackle pulley system (see photos)

  1. Tie a pulley to the top bar.  Loop a string through this pulley.  Tie one end of the string to the top of a second pulley and take the other end and loop it around the second pulley and then tie it to the spring scale.  Connect the weight to the second pulley
  2. Repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the  data table

Complete the following data table:

A

  Single fixed pulley Single moveable pulley Block and tackle

B

Resistance force-Weight of object being lifted(N)      

C

Resistance distance -Height that the object is lifted(m)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

D

Work output (J)              = force x distance(B x C)      

E

Effort force (N) (Reading from spring scale as string is pulled)      

F

Effort Distance    How far scale is moved (m)      

G

Work input (J)    = force x distance (E x F)      

H

Mechanical advantage (B/E)      

I

Efficiency = work output/work input(D/G) x 100      

1.     Which pulley system required the greatest effort force?  Explain why.

2.     Which type of pulley had the greatest mechanical advantage?  Explain why this is.

(HINT:  Think of which system you had to pull the most string through)

3.     What would be an easier way to determine the mechanical advantage of a pulley system?

(HINT:  Think of how many strings are holding up the weight)

4.     Which pulley system was the most efficient?   Is this what you expected?

5.     Explain the best way that a mechanic could pull out a large truck engine by himself using the least possible amount of force.

6.     Try another system with more than 3 pulleys. Record your ideas and your results.

7.     In what sense does the pulley make the work easier?

8.     Design a simple machine (which works) where the input work is less than the output work. If this is not possible, explain why you think so.

A single pulley. Input force is directed down, weight moves up.

Single moveable pulley. Lifting force moves weight upward.

Block and tackle. One moveable pulley and one fixed pulley.  Downward input force lifts weight upward.

Some different ways to think about energy and energy transformations; the development of ideas about energy:

http://www.physics4kids.com/files/thermo_laws.html

http://education.seattlepi.com/everyday-examples-first-second-laws-thermodynamics-4740.html

http://nmsolar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Energy_Concepts_Primer.pdf

https://www.newscientist.com/blogs/culturelab/2010/07/the-discovery-of-energy.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/ancestors-einstein.html

Posted in Science 7 | Leave a comment

10-14-16-20 November Science 8 Combining proportions and beginning the summative on chemical reactions.

20 November:

Today is a workday–

You will need (in paper copy AND uploaded correctly in your DSN). Ask if anything about this project is unclear:

  • a final product (see below) (a clear photograph, a link and/or file is needed in addition to any material pieces as your situation warrants)
  • a reflection outlining how each of the learning criteria are met in your final product—how you have “met” or “approached” each of the listed standards with examples drawn from your work. Explain specifically (with examples) how your thinking about matter has grown and changed during the course.

These are due: 22 November. Preferred at beginning of class. Will accept before 2:30 pm. A missing/late assignment may not have the opportunity to revise.

Note: We will begin Astronomy on 22 November. It will not be a day to work on the summative.

Product guidelines

Students may choose how they present and demonstrate their learning. There will be no traditional paper and pencil test.

Possibilities: science fair poster, video, presentation, report, ibook…you may be creative!

Learning criteria for success:

  1. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must be included and explained based on acquired data and observations
  2. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must also demonstrate an understanding that substances are composed of different types of atoms combined in specific ways
  3. demonstrate an understanding of the Law of the Conservation of Mass/Matter and how it is represented in your chemical change investigation
  4. your investigation procedure should be documented in your final product

Standards derived from NGSS:

  • Developing and using models
  • Planning and carrying out investigations
  • Stability and change
  • Chemical Reactions

Work neatly and carefully. Label and organize your data. Make data tables. Think of what you might graph. Ask if you have questions. Be observant. Record your ideas.

Get proposal approved and begin work. Pay attention to the timeline.

Enter your results (one partner needs editing rights): https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/18Jt50llF28iCaoUFURHuSPL71tndF84RII79wU9K1p0/edit?usp=sharing

Begin brainstorming and planning the chemical reactions summative project. See below.

Chemistry Unit Summative Assessment

This assessment is individual though you may work with your most recent partner to develop and implement a plan.

This assessment will take place over the course of 3-4 class days and your own time.

Brainstorm and planning 10 November;

Lab work 14 and 16 November;

Workday 20 November;

Due End of day 22 November

You will need:

  1. a documented AND *approved* plan/proposal (paper and digital in DSN) for the investigation of a particular reaction (or family of reactions) that gathers and analyzes both quantitative and qualitative
  2. a final product (see below) (a clear photograph, a link and/or file is needed in addition to any material pieces as your situation warrants)
  3. a reflection outlining how each of the learning criteria are met in your final product—how you have “met” or “approached” each of the listed standards with examples drawn from your work. Explain specifically (with examples) how your thinking about matter has grown and changed during the course.

General Assessment Guidelines:

  • the investigation must involve or demonstrate a chemical change
  • the investigation portion of the assessment from brainstorming up to the product can be done with a partner or individually
  • the final product must be individual
  • the investigation can be based on previous class activities, but it cannot be identical; the investigation can build on and extend things we have done in class; the investigation can be related to a specific question you have had in connection with a class activity, discussion, or presentation; mining youtube, etc. for ideas is strongly discouraged (connect your idea to the learning criteria, the standards, and the ideas we have introduced and explored in our class)
  • you plan/proposal needs to make clear how your choice is related to what we have done and how you intend to meet the various criteria of the project
  • both quantitative and qualitative data should be gathered from the investigation
  • safety first, both for you and the environment
  • materials must be available and requested in a timely fashion
  • teacher approval required

Plan/proposal: Plan/Proposal:

  • Reaction(s)? You need a clearly expressed research question–naming the reaction(s) and the variables you will examine.
  • Safety?
  • Materials?
  • Procedure plan (flow chart of tasks; timeline; storyboard)?
  • Product plan (flow chart of tasks; timeline; storyboard)?
  • Expectations and why (featuring your knowledge of atoms and molecules)
  • How will you meet criteria for project and for learning?
  • What information–data, graphs, images, etc.–will you need for your product?
  • Additional research on reaction?

Product guidelines

Students may choose how they present and demonstrate their learning. There will be no traditional paper and pencil test.

Possibilities: science fair poster, video, presentation, report, ibook…you may be creative!

Learning criteria for success:

  1. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must be included and explained based on acquired data and observations
  2. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must also demonstrate an understanding that substances are composed of different types of atoms combined in specific ways
  3. demonstrate an understanding of the Law of the Conservation of Mass/Matter and how it is represented in your chemical change investigation
  4. your investigation procedure should be documented in your final product

Standards derived from NGSS:

  • Developing and using models
  • Planning and carrying out investigations
  • Stability and change
  • Chemical Reactions

 

 

Posted in Science 8 | Leave a comment

15-17November Science 7 Testing Catapults; Beginning summative

The entire period is available for your to:

  1. Visual explanation / poster
  2. Verbal explanation of your poster (an explanatory caption)
  3. A reflection on your learning about motion

See board from the 15th.

Refer to previous blogpost for details of summative assessment:

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2017/11/13/13-nov-sci-7-testing-motion-device-beginning-summative-project/

Posted in Science 7 | Leave a comment

13 Nov. Sci 7 Testing motion device; Beginning Summative Project

Today we will complete, test, and modify your catapults

On the testing (today or Wednesday). You will have a distance and a target. We will measure the distance of first contact to the closest edge of the target. During the official trials you get two tries. When you launch, describe the operation of your device. Use correct motion concepts. Describe how you tested the device and your reasoning in the original construction and in the modifications.

Observe every launch of every device. Take note of the diversity of designs and how your classmates describe, build, operate, think and reason.

CONSTRUCTING, OPERATING, INVESTIGATING A MOTION DEVICE

Design a catapult that can launch a clay ball into a 0.5m x 0.5m square from at least 3m away.

  • Supplies available in the Makerspace
  • Other materials with permission
  • Clay for projectiles
  • Digital balance
  • Measuring tape / meter sticks
  • With your partner discuss theories on how a catapult works (note it may not employ a slingshot).
  • With your partner, design a catapult that you can make from materials in the Makerspace (you will have one period for construction and trials).Plan an experiment to gather data about how far clay balls of different masses (you will be given a mass range to work within) can be launched by your catapult. You will need to have a data table to record your results.
  • Explain how you will test and trial your catapult. What data will you gather? How will you record it?
  • Construct your catapult with your partner and and begin testing it. How can you improve the initial design? Once you have tested it do you need to make changes to the design? Can you make it more accurate or shoot farther?
  • Take picture of the designing and building process
  • Once everyone has finished construction each team will get two chances to land a clay ball into the square from at least 3m away. You will need to use your trial data to determine where you will place the catapult so that the ball lands in the square. A digital balance will be available to determine the mass of the various clay balls you trial and the one you are given during the competition.
  • You will have one class period to design and build the catapult. Trials will be during the next class period. All catapults will be stored in the classroom to keep them safe.

As you work with your catapult think of how the following concepts apply:

  • Distance
  • Time

  • Speed

  • Velocity

  • Inertia (Newton’s 1st Law)

  • Acceleration

  • Force (Newton’s 2nd Law)

  • Contact and non-contact forces

  • Equal and opposite forces (Newton’s 3rd Law)

  • Momentum and conservation of momentum

  • How could you describe the action of the catapult, the results of systematic trials, and the relevance of ideas about motion (see list above) in a poster that uses no words and now numerals–a totally visual explanation?
  • EVERYTHING IS DUE AT THE END OF CLASS ON FRIDAY 17 NOVEMBER
  • PRODUCT:    Design a (physical) poster (using no words and no numerals) that shows:

  1. What you consider to be a typical catapult launch and flight of the projectile.
  2. The results from your tests of the parameters of performance.
  3. How you tried to hit the target (your thinking and calibrating).
  4. How Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion apply. Consider BOTH the catapult and the projectile. (Think carefully about when the speed/velocity is changing and when it is constant. Think about where forces appear in the launch and flight and identify the paired 3rd law forces).
  5. How the principle of the Conservation of Momentum applies.

Take a clear and focused picture of your poster and upload to your DSN.

Write a summary along with the picture of your poster explaining your poster and upload in your DSN.

Write a reflection after the summary describing what you have learned about motion from working with and observing the catapults. What has surprised you? What questions about motion and catapults do you still have? Record the reflection in your DSN.

  • Upload a photo or video from one of your launches to your DSN.
  • STANDARDS FROM POWERSCHOOL
  • 7.SC.BTH.A.3 – Planning and carrying out investigations
  • 7.SC.BTH.B.7 – 7. Stability and Change
  • 7.SC.BTH.C.1 – PS2.A: Forces and Motion
Posted in Science 7 | Leave a comment

9 November Science 7 Change of plans due to bad air outside–the performance of a catapult as the basis for summative assessment

Be sure you are keeping your DSN complete and up-to-date. Complete and up-to-date means all 7 items are included for each class. 

We will postpone rocket launches until the air quality improves. In order to carry on with the spirit of a design and build project that involves aspects of motion that we have been studying, you will:

Design a catapult that can launch a clay ball into a 0.5m x 0.5m square from at least 3m away.

Use:

  • Supplies available in the Makerspace
  • Other materials with permission
  • Clay for projectiles
  • Digital balance
  • Measuring tape / meter sticks
  1. With your partner discuss theories on how a catapult works (note it may not employ a slingshot).
  2. With your partner, design a catapult that you can make from materials in the Makerspace (you will have one period for construction and trials).
  3. Plan an experiment to gather data about how far clay balls of different masses (you will be given a mass range to work within) can be launched by your catapult. You will need to have a data table to record your results.
  4. Explain how you will test and trial your catapult. What data will you gather? How will you record it?
  5. Construct your catapult with your partner and and begin testing it. How can you improve the initial design? Once you have tested it do you need to make changes to the design? Can you make it more accurate or shoot farther?
  6. Take picture of the designing and building process
  • Once everyone has finished construction each team will get two chances to land a clay ball into the square from at least 3m away. You will need to use your trial data to determine where you will place the catapult so that the ball lands in the square. A digital balance will be available to determine the mass of the various clay balls you trial and the one you are given during the competition.
  • You will have one class period to design and build the catapult. Trials will be during the next class period. All catapults will be stored in the classroom to keep them safe.

As you work with your catapult think of how the following concepts apply:

  • Distance
  • Time
  • Speed
  • Velocity
  • Inertia (Newton’s 1st Law)
  • Acceleration
  • Force (Newton’s 2nd Law)
  • Contact and non-contact forces
  • Equal and opposite forces (Newton’s 3rd Law)
  • Momentum and conservation of momentum

How could you describe the action of the catapult, the results of systematic trials, and the relevance of ideas about motion (see list above) in a poster that uses no words and now numerals–a totally visual explanation?

 

Posted in Science 7 | Leave a comment

8 November Science 8 Exploring combining proportions in a chemical reaction; preview of summative assessment

Pick a partner that you have worked with the least so far this year. Be sure your partner list is complete and up-to-date. This will be your partner through the summative assessment. The full description of the summative will be presented this coming Friday.

Problem:

What are the combining proportions of vinegar and baking soda (5% solution of acetic acid and water and sodium hydrogen carbonate–see the chemical formulae and the ball and stick models) that react completely?

React completely means that all the acetic acid is transformed AND all the sodium hydrogen carbonate is transformed.

Design an efficient procedure to address the question. Carry out the procedure. Work/measure/record carefully. Keep complete, well-labelled, well-organized records.

How will you know that you have reached the endpoint of the reaction and that no acetic acid is left AND no sodium hydrogen carbonate is left?

Try to compare your experimental findings with the prediction made by looking at the “molecular weights” using the ball and stick model of the reaction.

Relate your findings to previous experiments to find the mass of the carbon dioxide released from the reaction when certain amounts of sodium hydrogen carbonate were used.

A big part of understanding chemical reactions is keeping track of the atoms. Since we cannot see or really count individual atoms (too small and too many), measuring mass is the method that is used. (Look into the history of the discovery of combining proportions: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-chemistry/chapter/history-of-atomic-structure/ )

How does the fact that pure substances react with definite proportions by mass support the Atomic Theory of Matter, that is, the grand explanation based on the properties and behaviors of atoms and molecules?

The history of chemistry is a fascinating subject. Here are a couple of episodes from The Ascent of Man, which was an award-winning TV series about the history of science. These episodes will help you understand what the major ideas are and how these critical ideas were discovered and developed. They should also stimulate new questions for you:

When you are finished, identify a question of interest to you (and your partner) that has its origin in something we have done, seen, or talked about in class.

Posted in Science 8 | Leave a comment

7 November Science 7 WOW science reflection and the design and construction of air pressure water rockets

Make a new document in your Biodiversity folder in your DSN. For 20 minutes, write about the nature/river walk and stream science during WOW. You may use the following prompts to help you write. You may also use a picture from the stream science or nature/river walk to illustrate your piece of writing. You may use the style of creative non-fiction or poetry.

Describe things you saw that you had never seen before. What did you notice about the landscape and your location? What are some of the different living things (plant, animal, fungi) that you encountered? What is your understanding of the life cycle of the immature (larval) insects we caught in the stream? Describe insights and ideas you had never thought about before with regard to living things and the environment. What was most amazing to you–most beautiful? Why?

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B7o8voJ_anqvNmN0Y0oyUTBHT3M?usp=sharing

*************************

For the next 60 minutes.

With a new partner:

  1. Discuss your theories of how a rocket launches and fires. Include both sketches and words.
  2. Design a rocket with drawings and words that you could make from the plastic bottles. There is a sample, simple rocket in the classroom.
  3. Plan a simple experiment you could try (every team will be guaranteed 2 launch attempts).
  4. Explain the reasoning behind your experiment and predict what you think will happen. Be sure to spell out the reasons for your expectation. Use your scientific understanding of motion.
  5. Explain what you will try to observe about the performance of the rocket and how you will make the observations. Be sure to explain clearly what you are trying to test.
  6. Construct your rocket. You may use 2 complete, intact bottles. You may use any of the scraps to fashion and attach the rocket. Be very careful cutting plastic. You must ask an adult to start the cut on any intact bottle. Duct tape works well to attach features to the rocket. Use masking tape to make a label for the rocket with your names and period.
  7. Take plenty of pictures and notes documenting your design and construction process. These records should appear in your DSN entry for today.
  8. Share your design and ideas for testing with the rest of the class.

You may wish to consult the following links:

Posted in Science 7 | Leave a comment