26 November Science 8 Comments AND Begin Scale Model of Solar System

  • Mindful moment.
  • Review past DSN entries / past class. Your Chemical Reactions Summative project is due at the beginning of the next class. Paper copy AND digital copy. Do not forget the reflection.
  • See today’s blogpost–it is important. Bookmark it for the references.
  • Prepare for today’s activities. There will be two parts. 1) Report card comment suggestions and 2) Astronomy — Solar system scale model.
  • Questions.
  • * * * *

Report card comment suggestions. The goal is for the comments about you and science 8 to be specific and individually relevant. Be sure to use specific examples. Please explain your thoughts fully.

Complete the following on lined paper with your name and period, turn in, and keep a copy (photo) for your DSN.

A. What sort of comment do you feel would be most helpful to you and your parents with regard to you and Science 8? Why? Write an example.

B. What truly accurate comment would you write about your understanding of scientific ideas in Science 8?

  1. Describe a particular concept where your understanding grew, changed, and became more sophisticated. How did this happen for you?
  2. Describe a particular concept that presented a barrier to your understanding. Why do you think the idea was difficult for you? What have you done in response to the challenge? What do you think would help you overcome the challenge in understanding?

C. What truly accurate comment would you write about your skill(s) at carrying out scientific investigations? Consult the chart of scientific practices at the front of the room. Where do you feel you have grown in terms of scientific practices and skills? What has been most helpful.

D. What truly accurate comment would you make about your level of effort in science 8. The digital science notebook has been promoted as a way for every student to improve in sustained engagement. A promise was made that if a student kept a complete and up-to-date DSN, that their science learning would grow. To what extent have you tested this promise. Explain the level of effort you have devoted to the DSN.

E. What benefits do you see in learning scientific ideas/explanations and the scientific ways of working and of seeing the world? To what do you attribute your views? What are your plans for next semester? Next year? After high school? After that? Do you have any long term ambitions? What are they? How do you see yourself with respect to those ambitions?

  • * * * *

ASTRONOMY

 

Complete as much of the following as you can. Before the end of class today, be sure to see the description of the summative assessment project at the end of this post–Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance.

  • Answer the following in your digital science notebook–in the astronomy folder:
  • What do you already know about the earth, the moon, the sun, the planets, the stars, the universe? Do NOT look up any answers. Respond based on what you currently know or think you know.
  • These questions are important to think about and to write about: How do you know? How do we know? How do astronomers know? What are the methods of observation and argument?
  • Answer the following questions in your digital science notebook/take the survey and record your responses in your dsn: 
  • https://www.learner.org/teacherslab/pup/studentquestions.html
  • (You may use your own headphones for the next part, or, if they are available, check them out. If you do not have headphones, keep the volume low so others are not disturbed.)
  • Watch the following video about students’ ideas in astronomy: A Private Universe http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=9  OR https://vimeo.com/113349804
  • Write a summary in your DSN. List your questions. What are your private conceptions?

Watch the following video. Write a summary in your DSN. Explain the procedure used. List any questions you have. Read about making the video:

Watch the following videos and write summaries in your DSN–

History of Astronomy (browse the following. Be sure to examine the sites and view videos as we take up our study of astronomy).

See the description of the Summative Assessment Project below. You will build the model in groups, but the assessment project will be completed as individuals. We will use the sidewalk along the street along the west side of the school. We will begin in the next class. Be prepared.

mapschool

Each class will use San Martin Marg for the site of their models. San Martin Marg runs along the west side of the school. In the picture above, note the scale at the bottom right of the image. You can print this image to help you construct your model.

kcsolarmodel

“The exhibition begins with the sun, located at 13th and Baltimore, with the display running south along Baltimore through the Crossroads District, then ending in front of Union Station. The Voyage experience takes approximately thirty minutes to complete, walking at a leisurely pace from the sun to Pluto.”

http://voyagesolarsystem.org/community-network/kansas-city-kansas-voyage-mark-i/

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 18-19 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

Groups prepare and construct the model. Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.
  2. Produce in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard.
  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.
  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale.
  5. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) the directions and inclinations of orbits. (Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.)
8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models
8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

 

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13-15-19-21 (3 parts due 29) November Science 7 Summative Project Description

  • a. Mindful moment.
  • b. Review previous DSN entries about motion.
  • c. Preview blogpost with Plan for today (and summative project description).
  • d. Prepare DSN for today. Your entry will consist of the work done on poster, description, reflection.
  • e. Your questions.

 

  • * * * *

Today is set aside for you to work on your poster as individuals. The poster uses no words or numerals.

  • The poster should include:
  • Your original design and explanation
  • The actual design and device that met the performance criteria
  • How your thinking changed from the original design to the actual
  • The results of your investigation of the parameters of performance
  • Your current explanation of how/why the device does what it does
  • The test(s) your performed and their outcome to see whether your current explanation was supported or challenged

Be sure to use the important concepts we have studied this year with regard to motion:

  • Distance
  • Time
  • Speed
  • Direction
  • Velocity
  • Inertia (Newton’s 1st Law)
  • Acceleration
  • Force (Newton’s 2nd Law) 
  • Torque
  • Contact and non-contact forces
  • Equal and opposite forces (Newton’s 3rd Law)
  • Momentum and conservation of momentum

ALSO:

Write a thorough description of your investigation and a thorough explanation of your device and its motion to accompany the picture of your poster. In this description explain your poster.

Write a thorough and thoughtful reflection describing what you have learned about motion from working with and observing the comeback cans. Refer to your prior ideas and to the various experiences and experiments we have done this year. What surprised you about the comeback can? What has surprised you about the science of motion? What questions about motion, comeback cans, and other oscillating systems do you still have? Record the reflection in your DSN.

Turn in paper copies of your poster, your description, and your reflection. These should also be stored together in your DSN in a folder inside your motion folder. Due 27 November at the beginning of class.

Investigate the parameters of performance of your device.

Control the “launch.” (You need to start with untwisted rubber bands; then count the turns and use the same number of turns on each trial; OR use an inclined plane set at a constant angle and let the can roll down from the same spot.)

How do the number of turns affect the outgoing distance, the return distance, and the 2nd outgoing distance (and so on)?

If you use a set number of turns to start, what is the average speed of the outgoing trip? What is the average speed of the return trip? What happens if you change the number of turns for starting?

How are the number of oscillations of the device affected by the number of starting turns?

Video a motion event with a ruler in the background. Describe the acceleration on the outgoing trip and on the return trip.

How much force/torque is generated by your device? How steep an incline can it climb? Control the number of starting turns in the rubber band and measure the angle of inclination on an inclined board.

  • * * * *

What is your explanation for the behavior of the device?

How could you test that explanation–that is, find support for it by predicting a consequence of your explanation being true, OR challenge the explanation by obtaining a result that contradicts what is predicted by your explanation? This/these test(s) would be a real experiment.

Remember to incorporate an understanding of the important concepts and quantities we have used to study motion:

  • Distance
  • Time
  • Speed
  • Velocity
  • Inertia (Newton’s 1st Law)
  • Acceleration
  • Force (Newton’s 2nd Law) (now, Torque) (also friction)
  • Contact and non-contact forces (gravity is a non-contact force)
  • Equal and opposite forces (Newton’s 3rd Law)
  • Momentum and conservation of momentum
  • * * * *

Find out about “Torque”

Poster is due on 27 November

CONSTRUCTING, OPERATING, INVESTIGATING A MOTION DEVICE THAT EXHIBITS CHANGING VELOCITY (ESPECIALLY OSCILLATION)

The purpose of our second summative project on motion is to assess your skill and knowledge of motion and scientific practices. This project is based on your success at designing, building, investigating, and explaining a motion device that exhibits changing velocity. Our first project focused on constant velocity. This second project examines changing velocity, especially through the action of an oscillating device.

You may work in a group of 3, a group of 2, or individually. It will be difficult to conduct tests of performance individually.

Step 1: Make a plan with your group and with yourself on how you will operate as a group. Set up an organized system for recording your thoughts, procedures, and findings throughout the entire project / investigation. Use the recommendations for the steps of making a DSN entry–what do/did you do, what do/did you see, what do/did you talk about, what do/did you think–use sketches and photos extensively. Stick to your plan.

Step 2: Observe the action of the demonstrated device.

Step 3: Observe video clips 1 and 2 below.

Step 4: Discuss your observations with your team. Record them. Distinguish between what you see and what you think causes the action. (Distinguish between observation and inference). Be sure that this discussion is recorded in your notes.

Step 5: Make a sketch of how you think the device is constructed. Each member of the group should do this. Describe your proposed mechanism in words. Explain the action in terms of the various concepts of motion we have discussed. Each member of the group should do this.

Step 6: Build a device that is based on your design. Do not engage in any construction practices that are unsafe. You must consult me or a teaching assistant before cutting or making a hole in metals, plastics, or stiff cardboard. Keep track of each attempt. Keep track of your revisions and the effect these have on the performance of your device.

Step 7: Demonstrate your device. It must meet certain requirements (parameters of performance) before you proceed to the next step.

Step 7 a: If you get stuck, take a look at the video clip below. What must take place in your device for the object to slow down, stop, change directions, speed up, an so on? If you continue to be stumped, ask me to send you a couple of other video clips showing a device that is transparent.

Step 8. If you have succeeded in building a device that meets the performance requirements, begin the investigation of its performance. Identify parameters relevant to our study of motion (for example distance travelled for each oscillation, times for each oscillation, average speed for each oscillation, number of oscillations under consistent starting conditions, description of pattern of acceleration in each oscillation, etc.). How will you initiate motion in a fair and consistent way? How consistent is the performance of your device? Keep excellent and well-organized records.

Step 9: Once you have an understanding of the operation of your device, explain the mechanism. Use ideas about motion that we have studied. Develop a way of testing your explanation. Carry out the test. In other words, design and perform an experiment(s) to support or challenge your explanation. Keep complete, well-organized records. (Hint: You may want to build a device that is transparent so that you can see what is actually happening inside when the device moves / oscillates.)

Step 10: Due date to be determined soon. Design and produce a (physical) poster (using no words and no numerals) that shows:

  1. What you consider to be a typical “launch” and oscillatory motion event of your device.
  2. The results from your tests of the parameters of performance.
  3. Your proposed mechanism and the results of testing your explanation of the mechanism and its consequent motion.
  4. How Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion apply. Think carefully about when the speed/velocity is changing and when it is constant. Think about where forces appear in the motion and identify the paired 3rd law forces.
  5. How the principle of the Conservation of Momentum applies.

Take a clear and focused picture of your poster and upload to your DSN.

Write a thorough description of your investigation and a thorough explanation of your device and its motion to accompany the picture of your poster. In this description explain your poster.

Write a reflection after the summary describing what you have learned about motion from working with and observing the comeback cans. What surprised you? What questions about motion, comeback cans, and other oscillating systems do you still have? Record the reflection in your DSN.

  • Upload a photo or video from one of the motion events of your comeback can to your DSN.
  • STANDARDS FROM POWERSCHOOL
  • 7.SC.BTH.A.3 – Planning and carrying out investigations
  • 7.SC.BTH.B.7 – 7. Stability and Change
  • 7.SC.BTH.C.1 – PS2.A: Forces and Motion

As you work with your device, consider how the following apply:

  • Distance
  • Time
  • Speed
  • Velocity
  • Inertia (Newton’s 1st Law)
  • Acceleration
  • Force (Newton’s 2nd Law)
  • Contact and non-contact forces
  • Equal and opposite forces (Newton’s 3rd Law)
  • Momentum and conservation of momentum

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/rolling-race/

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12-14-16-20 (Project Due 28 Nov) November Science 8 Summative Project (Chemical Reactions)

For today 20 November

  • Mindful moment
  • Review work from previous class
  • Begin work on “product” (see options below AND see learning criteria for success)
  • you have investigated a particular chemical reaction (or family of reactions) and have gathered and analyzed both quantitative and qualitative data

  • chemical formula and other visual representation of a chemical reaction (like the ball and stick models of molecules) must be included and explained based on acquired data and observations

  • chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must also demonstrate an understanding that substances are composed of different types of atoms combined in specific ways

  • demonstrate an understanding of the Law of the Conservation of Mass/Matterand how it is represented in your chemical change investigation

  • your investigation procedure should be documented in your final product

  • a final product (see below) (a clear photograph, a link and/or file is needed in addition to any material pieces as your situation warrants)

  • reference list–complete bibliographic information

  • a reflection outlining how each of the learning criteria are met in your final product—how you have “met” or “approached” each of the listed standards with examples drawn from your work. Explain specifically (with examples) how your thinking about matter has grown and changed during the course. Comment on your level of effort–DSN complete and up-to-date? Matter chart as complete as possible? Did you attempt the matter chart and try to link observations with explanations using atoms and molecules? What did you learn by trying to develop explanations for the variety of things you/we observed?

  • Seek assistance.
  • If you still need to do work in the lab, check in first.

Need volunteers from each class for Newsletter 2 which will feature this current summative project–interview, pictures, sketches, excerpts, samples, reflections. 

For today 16 November

  • Mindful moment with your group
  • Work with group to look at previous class / previous discussion / previous decisions
  • If you have not gotten approval for your proposed question and procedure, do so right away.
  • Seek assistance with conducting your investigation.
  • Work safely, neatly.
  • Keep complete and organized records of what you do, see, talk about, think, wonder question.

Several groups in all classes are investigating the question of combining proportions of reactants and how much of reactant A is required to completely react with a given amount of reactant B. You might find this short article helpful: https://www.learner.org/courses/chemistry/text/text.html?dis=U&num=Ym5WdElUQS9OeW89&sec=YzJWaklUQS9PQ289

Need volunteers from each class for Newsletter 2 which will feature this current summative project–interview, pictures, sketches, excerpts, samples, reflections.

After you conduct the quantitative/empirical/experimental portion of your investigation, turn toward the theoretical representation using the ball and stick models of molecules–as in:

The reactants are vinegar and baking soda. Vinegar is a solution of 5% acetic acid and 95% water. Baking soda is also called sodium hydrogen carbonate. The products are carbon dioxide, sodium acetate, and water. The reaction can be represented as: (NaHCO3 + HC2H3O2 → NaC2H3O2 + H2O + CO ).  Can you tell which symbols refer to which molecules?

See a representation of the reaction using “ball and stick” molecular models. See if you can follow the changes:

White ball = hydrogen; black ball = carbon; red ball = oxygen; silver ball = sodium; gray stick = bond (c0valent); purple stick = bond (ionic)

2 “rules” for reactions:

  • All atoms from the reactants end up somewhere–they do not disappear and new ones do not appear. (Conservation of Mass)
  • The reaction takes place in the fewest number of steps. (This rule relates to the concept of energy. You will explore and employ this concept more thoroughly as you advance in your study of matter / chemistry.)

startreactvbs

.

midreactvbs.endreactvbs

From previous class

  • Mindful moment.
  • Review past class in your DSN entry.
  • Form group 3, 2, or 1 person(s). Be sure you have worked together productively in the past. If there is any history of partners not functioning well, do not chose to work together. Need approval from Dr. F–may need to make a contract.Together read today’s plan in the blogpost.
  • Prepare DSN entry for today. Make plans with group on organizing and sharing all data and thinking. Make contingency plans for absences. (Each student keeps their own records and notes in their own DSN, but you may share ideas and data with one another.)
  • In your group. Develop some questions specifically about the Summative Project.

Some questions from our last class before the fall break–

period 5

  • More about molecules—how they form—how they are connected
  • More about—
  • How is periodic table organized? (Story of Mendeleev’s discovery/invention of the periodic table)
  • How do we know atoms exist? What is the evidence?
  • How does matter change states?
  • How are electrons related to magnetism?
  • What branches of science are not concerned with matter? (Einstein connected matter and energy.)
  • What about anti-matter?
  • More about the reaction between atoms—how do molecules actually change and how do atoms actually rearrange?
  • How is periodic table organized and why is it organized in that way?
  • (Uncle Tungsten—-Oliver Sacks)
  • How many atoms in a typical human body (how big are atoms?)
  • What is the argument Einstein used to make the connection between matter and energy?
  • What happens with atoms and molecules during dissolving so that they become invisible?
  • How do scientists calculate the number of atoms in an object? (Avogadro’s number).
  • Why are molecules different sizes?
  • How do scientists find out what happens in a chemical reaction? How similar are a professional scientists techniques to the ones we have used?
  • What is the important of a medium (like water) for a reaction to take place?
  • Why do some substances react and some don’t?
  • Are there particles smaller than atoms?
  • Are there extraterrestrial molecules/substances different from terrestrial molecules/substances?
  • Are all atoms of a certain element the same? Yes and no—there are isotopes.
  • Is a chemical change different from a physical change?
  • Difference in reactions in space as compared to earth—check research from space station and shuttle.

Period 7

  • What is matter made of? What is the composition of material objects?
  • What is the difference between ionic bond and covalent bond?
  • How was matter found? What is the history of ideas about matter?
  • Why do some substances react and some do not?
  • How many reactions are there–on earth? in a living thing? involving a certain element–carbon, for example?
  • How are new elements created? (nuclear processes)
  • What is electricity? Is it a state of matter? Is lightning a form of matter called plasma?
  • Are there different kinds of chemical reactions?
  • Are new atoms being built? (Nuclear processes in stars)
  • How is the periodic table related to matter?
  • Why is matter important in your life?

Period 8

  • Is a rainbow related to matter?
  • Why is the periodic table arranged the way it is? (Find out how Mendeleev invented the periodic table?)
  • How are the different states of matter explained?
  • Is light matter? (Einstein related matter and energy. )
  • What are the factors affecting how atoms are rearranged into molecules in a chemical reaction?
  • How are substances investigated–like gases that are not visible?
  • State of matter of Non-newtonian fluids?
  • Forms of matter before the big bang? (Weinberg The First Three Minutes) (Cosmology)
  • What was the problem with the Bohr model? (Quantum mechanics)
  • Is it possible to produce an absolute vacuum?
  • What about anti-matter?

Selecting a reaction?

Safety–personal and environmental, feasibility, availability

  • You may use a reaction from earlier in class (see your matter chart and go further) or a new reaction (remember the safety and availability requirements)
  • Finding the proportions of reactants for a complete reaction. (For example, how much vinegar is required for a complete reaction with 1 gram of baking soda? Approach this empirically and theoretically (using the “weights” of the molecules based on the molecular formula and the periodic table))
  • Examining the properties of the products of a reaction. (Gases? Soluble projects that can be recovered by evaporation–takes time? Precipitates of insoluble products?)
  • Investigating factors affecting the rate of a reaction. (Temperature?, Concentration?, Surface area?) (Voltage in the case of electrolysis?)
  • Comparing a family of reactions. (For example, how do the reactions of vinegar with different carbonates compare–sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate) (For example, how do different metals (iron, zinc, magnesium, aluminum) react with a solution of copper sulfate?) (How is electric voltage affected by different combinations of metals dipped into vinegar? This involves making simple wet cell batteries.)
  • Other–with evidence of research and, of course, safety
  • You might find some ideas here: http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/
  • * * * *

Product guidelines

Students may choose how they present and demonstrate their learning. There will be no traditional paper and pencil test.

Possibilities: science fair poster–(well-crafted, neat, attractive), video, presentation, report, ibook…you may be creative!

Learning criteria for success:

  1. chemical formula and other visual representation of a chemical reaction (like the ball and stick models of molecules) must be included and explained based on acquired data and observations
  2. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must also demonstrate an understanding that substances are composed of different types of atoms combined in specific ways
  3. demonstrate an understanding of the Law of the Conservation of Mass/Matterand how it is represented in your chemical change investigation
  4. your investigation procedure should be documented in your final product

Standards derived from NGSS:

  • Developing and using models
  • Planning and carrying out investigations
  • Stability and change
  • Chemical Reactions

Work neatly and carefully. Label and organize your data. Make data tables. Think of what you might graph. Ask if you have questions. Be observant. Record your ideas.

Get proposal approved and begin work.

Begin brainstorming and planning the chemical reactions summative project. See below.

Chemistry Unit Summative Assessment

This assessment is individual though you may work with up to two partners to develop and implement a plan. Partners are important. Only work with partners who are responsible and productive.

This assessment will take place over the course of 3-4 class days and your own time.

Brainstorm and planning 12 November;

Lab work 14 and 16 November;

Workday 20 November;

We will start astronomy on 26 November.

Project due 28 November.

You will need:

  1. a documented AND *approved* plan/proposal (paper and digital in DSN) for the investigation of a particular reaction (or family of reactions) that gathers and analyzes both quantitative and qualitative
  2. a final product (see below) (a clear photograph, a link and/or file is needed in addition to any material pieces as your situation warrants)
  3. reference list–complete bibliographic information
  4. a reflection outlining how each of the learning criteria are met in your final product—how you have “met” or “approached” each of the listed standards with examples drawn from your work. Explain specifically (with examples) how your thinking about matter has grown and changed during the course.

General Assessment Guidelines:

  • the investigation must involve or demonstrate a chemical change
  • the investigation portion of the assessment from brainstorming up to the product can be done with a partner or individually
  • the final product must be individual
  • the investigation can be based on previous class activities, but it cannot be identical; the investigation can build on and extend things we have done in class; the investigation can be related to a specific question you have had in connection with a class activity, discussion, or presentation; mining youtube, etc. for ideas is strongly discouraged (connect your idea to the learning criteria, the standards, and the ideas we have introduced and explored in our class)
  • you plan/proposal needs to make clear how your choice is related to what we have done and how you intend to meet the various criteria of the project
  • both quantitative and qualitative data should be gathered from the investigation
  • safety first, both for you and the environment
  • materials must be available and requested in a timely fashion
  • teacher approval required

Plan/proposal: Plan/Proposal:

  • Reaction(s)? You need a clearly expressed research question–naming the reaction(s) and the variables you will examine.
  • Safety?
  • Materials?
  • Procedure plan (flow chart of tasks; timeline; storyboard)?
  • Product plan (flow chart of tasks; timeline; storyboard)?
  • Expectations and why (featuring your knowledge of atoms and molecules)
  • How will you meet criteria for project and for learning?
  • What information–data, graphs, images, etc.–will you need for your product?
  • Additional research on reaction?
  • References

 

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2 November Science 7 Continued review of motion–Newton’s Laws–Momentum–Summative project

  • Mindful moment.
  • Previous DSN entry.
  • Read plan in today’s blogpost.
  • Get DSN entry for the day ready.
  • Questions: What is one thing you wish you knew about motion?
  • Is there something happening at a smaller molecular level that has to do with motion?
  • Why don’t we feel the motion of the earth?
  • How will the fan car move with the sail (how will it compare to the motion without the sail)?
  • How can the fact that 2 objects (similar shape) of different mass will fall at the same rate?
  • How does an airplane fly?
  • Why do I need to learn about this stuff?
  • Why are scientists interested in motion?
  • Why does gravity on earth have such an impact on earth? Why?
  • Question about Einstein’ view of space-time–in contrast to Newton’s invariant mass, space, time. Relativity of simultaneity.
  • Bucket of water spinning around–water does not spill–why?
  • What makes water flow in different currents in a river?
  • Is there anything that does not have motion? (important to recognize frame of reference)
  • When we jump why doesn’t the earth move out from under us? Why do we fall straight down?
  • How does water move in a river?
  • Where does gravity come from? Why is there gravity?
  • Would a person’s weight be different at the poles or the equator?
  • What would happen on the earth if everyone jumped at the same time?
  • If you were on an airplane moving with constant velocity, what happens when you jump up?
  • How is the speed of the earth measured?
  • What is first artifact created by humans involving motion?
  • Time travel?
  • What is the critical speed for an airplane to fly?
  • How can the air-pressure water-rocket’s flights with different amounts of water be explained?
  • Does material in stars move within the star?
  • * * * *

Write a note to yourself. This note should remind you of what you know about motion. What you want to be sure to remember as you start your second summative project.

  • * * * *

Missing or IE work. Parents need to know if you are not doing your work.

On October 5th did you add a comment to the blog AND reply to another student’s comment? This is in powerschool.

Also, the WOW preparation classes, do you have entries in your DSN following the 7 items for completeness?

Also, on 29-31 October, do you have the graph of the 3 trials pulling the cart with forces of 8, 10, and 12 pounds as well as written interpretation and comments?

  • * * * *

Send excerpt from your writing. Send one picture from your DSN. (Not a picture of notes.) Send one sketch from your DSN.

  • * * * *

Share your expectation and reasoning regarding the motion of the fan car when the sail is attached.

  • * * * *

See the following visual explanations by 7th graders of the air-pressure water-rocket. No words or numbers are used. What do you notice? What questions do you have?

  • * * * *

Summative project

The exact description will be given after break.

Things to keep in mind:

  • A mysterious device that shows changing velocity will be the focus.
  • You will first propose a mechanism in words and drawing that explains the action of the device. (You did this already with the pull-back car and at the beginning of the year with the walking elephant.)
  • Next, you will try to build something that behaves in the same way as the mystery device, keeping a record of what you try and how your ideas (and trial devices) work.
  • Next, if you need it, you will examine the working device more closely.
  • When you have built a working device, you will investigate the parameters of performance–determining average speeds, changes in velocity, forces, ranges of movement, etc.
  • One component will involve the creation of a visual explanation using no words.
  • A comprehensive and reflection component will involve using what you know and think about motion (with reference to experiences, experiments, discussions we have had this year) to explain the operation of the device you have built.
  • * * * *

If time permits, we will conduct some experiments using a familiar oscillating (goes back and forth regularly) system that, of course, involves changing velocities .

You will be asked to make note of your expectations and reasoning and to compare actual results to what you expected.

  • * * * *

Momentum and the conservation of momentum are very important ideas. How do they relate to Newton’s Laws of Motion? See if the following video references clarify things for you. Perhaps you will have new questions. Be sure to record them.

Newton’s Third Law and Misconception about Newton’s Third Law

https://www.flippingphysics.com/third-law.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmmjfbl7zG4

Bill Nye on Momentum

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkeQiNSgVpY

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1 November Science 8 Chemical reactions–review and preparation for summative project–the moon today

  • Mindful moment.
  • Review past class in your DSN entry.
  • Read today’s plan in the blogpost.
  • Prepare DSN entry for today.
  • Questions.

Some questions from period 5:

  • More about molecules—how they form—how they are connected
  • More about—
  • How is periodic table organized? (Story of Mendeleev’s discovery/invention of the periodic table)
  • How do we know atoms exist? What is the evidence?
  • How does matter change states?
  • How are electrons related to magnetism?
  • What branches of science are not concerned with matter? (Einstein connected matter and energy.)
  • What about anti-matter?
  • More about the reaction between atoms—how do molecules actually change and how do atoms actually rearrange?
  • How is periodic table organized and why is it organized in that way?
  • (Uncle Tungsten—-Oliver Sacks)
  • How many atoms in a typical human body (how big are atoms?)
  • What is the argument Einstein used to make the connection between matter and energy?
  • What happens with atoms and molecules during dissolving so that they become invisible?
  • How do scientists calculate the number of atoms in an object? (Avogadro’s number).
  • Why are molecules different sizes?
  • How do scientists find out what happens in a chemical reaction? How similar are a professional scientists techniques to the ones we have used?
  • What is the important of a medium (like water) for a reaction to take place?
  • Why do some substances react and some don’t?
  • Are there particles smaller than atoms?
  • Are there extraterrestrial molecules/substances different from terrestrial molecules/substances?
  • Are all atoms of a certain element the same? Yes and no—there are isotopes.
  • Is a chemical change different from a physical change?
  • Difference in reactions in space as compared to earth—check research from space station and shuttle.

Period 7

  • What is matter made of? What is the composition of material objects?
  • What is the difference between ionic bond and covalent bond?
  • How was matter found? What is the history of ideas about matter?
  • Why do some substances react and some do not?
  • How many reactions are there–on earth? in a living thing? involving a certain element–carbon, for example?
  • How are new elements created? (nuclear processes)
  • What is electricity? Is it a state of matter? Is lightning a form of matter called plasma?
  • Are there different kinds of chemical reactions?
  • Are new atoms being built? (Nuclear processes in stars)
  • How is the periodic table related to matter?
  • Why is matter important in your life?

Period 8

Is a rainbow related to matter?

Why is the periodic table arranged the way it is? (Find out how Mendeleev invented the periodic table?)

How are the different states of matter explained?

Is light matter? (Einstein related matter and energy. )

What are the factors affecting how atoms are rearranged into molecules in a chemical reaction?

How are substances investigated–like gases that are not visible?

State of matter of Non-newtonian fluids?

Forms of matter before the big bang? (Weinberg The First Three Minutes) (Cosmology)

What was the problem with the Bohr model? (Quantum mechanics)

Is it possible to produce an absolute vacuum?

What about anti-matter?

  • * * * *

The moon today at 8:00 am–facing in a westerly direction. Moon is very high in the sky:

Standing on south landing M313.

  • * * * *

Share your moon journal.

Share your matter chart.

Discuss Fundamental-questions-about-matter

Summative project.

Selecting a reaction?

Safety–personal and environmental, feasibility, availability

  • Finding the proportions of reactants for a complete reaction.
  • Examining the properties of the products of a reaction.
  • Investigating factors affecting the rate of a reaction.
  • Comparing a family of reactions.
  • Other–with evidence of research and, of course, safety

Description to come after break.

Involves a chemical reactions.

Involves some quantitative aspect.

Involves using the ball and stick models or equivalent.

Involves clear expression of thinking and ideas–scientific argument, scientific theory of matter.

Thoughts.

Some demonstrations.

 

 

 

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31 . October Science 7 Big motion day–consolidating ideas, new phenomena, new concepts, getting ready for summative project #2

  1. Mindful moment
  2. Review DSN entry from last class (2 parts–WOW reflections, remembering and graphing the cart pulled with a constant force experiment)
  3. Preview today’s plan on today’s blogpost.
  4. Prepare DSN for today–everything in the motion folder.
  5. We will save questions for the end of class.
  • * * * *

Newton’s Laws of Motion

  1. All masses have inertia. Inertia is the tendency to for a mass to keep constant velocity (which could be 0 in some frames of reference). The constant velocity can be changed by an outside force.
  2. Forces cause masses to change their velocity. The change can be speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction. The change is proportional to the size of the force and the size of the mass. Bigger mass requires a greater force to achieve the same acceleration (remember dropping the clay balls of different mass). A greater force will cause a greater change in velocity in the same mass. Acceleration is comparing the change in velocity to the change in time. This is often written as F = ma.
  3. Forces come in pairs. For every force on an object there is an equal and opposite force pulling or pushing back. (The easiest way to begin understanding this is the experiment with two spring scales held by you and a partner. Neither of you can pull harder than the other. Both spring scales will read the same force but will be in opposite directions.

There are a few other aspects of motion that are part of the classical scientific understanding.

Velocity, Force, and Acceleration have direction. These are called vectors. We will look at two cases to help develop our understanding of why direction is important.

The concept of momentum is very important. For some it is almost intuitive. Momentum is defined as “mass times velocity.” Momentum can be transferred. Many students enjoy the “Newton’s cradle” toy. Momentum is also conserved.

Today:

  • We will do a simple demonstration experiment with an air pressure water rocket. Observe closely. Think of how all our ideas about motion apply.
  • We will spin the weight on a string and see which path it takes when released. This is a great demonstration of the consequences of Newton’s Laws.
  • We will look at a couple of “explosions” to begin developing our concepts of momentum and the conservation of momentum. This demonstration may also help with our explanation of the air-pressure water-rocket.
  • We will pull spring scales to see the simplest demonstration of Newton’s 3rd law.
  • We will look at the fan car and begin to decode the puzzle.
  • We will take questions.

Check out this video that ties together many ideas about motion–using momentum: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-s8NZ8xKW0

This is an old but excellent video about momentum and collisions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kn4TMxtQrwg

 

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30 Oct. Science 8 Recollecting WOW; Resuming Chemical Reactions

Quick look at the moon today for the morning class (period 8).

a. Mindful moment. Take a memory from the river flowing at WOW. Focus on that image. Breathe mindfully for a bit.

b. Review your previous DSN entries on chemical reactions.

c. Preview today’s blogpost.

d. Prepare entry for today. Writing on the river experience will go in the Earth Cycles folder. The rest of today’s work will be in the Matter folder.

e. Questions.

  • * * * *
  1. In your Earth Cycles folder, write a reflection on your experiences with flowing water at WOW 8. What did you learn about the river, about currents, rapids, white water, dynamics of flow, and other elements used to “read the river?” Relate your reactions and reflections to the response you wrote to Gary Snyder’s “We Wash Our Bowls with This Water” that we read in class before WOW.

2. Moon journal progress? Look at the rising and setting times: https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/india/new-delhi

3. Parent newsletter?

4.For the next part of the day, the entry will go in the Matter folder. If you do not finish all 11 items for today, consider them homework. Have everything ready for the next class as we will introduce the summative project for chemical reactions.

5. Conduct the following experiment and add your data to the spreadsheet. Your spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Aq2_2f6OCmZGEHzI04xRNITgz_IAdLBSJmke8rbw7eU/edit?usp=sharing

2017 Spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/18kjFLcw_LY_ojK5RFEh7sfCikb6U28rCPlQ6Gj0h50A/edit?usp=sharing

Sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda) and 5% acetic acid in water (vinegar)

What do you already know or think you know about the reaction between vinegar and baking soda? What do you think happens?

  • Wear eye protection.
  • Plastic bottle with tight-fitting lid. Totally clean and dry on the outside. Carefully find the mass of the bottle.
  • Add 50 ml vinegar to the bottle. Find the mass again.
  • Weigh 5 grams of baking soda on a tissue.
  • Gently bring the corners of the tissue together and make a small bundle.
  • Carefully put the bundle into the bottle. DO NOT LET the vinegar come in contact with the baking soda. They must remain separated.
  • Fit the cap so that the corners of the tissue bundle are held when the cap is tightlyclosed.
  • Find the mass of the closed bottle, tissue, baking soda, vinegar.
  • Gentle shake or turn the bottle so that the vinegar comes into contact with the tissue bundle of baking soda. Observe what happens.
  • When the reaction seems to slow / stop, find the mass of the bottle (still closed tightly) again.
  • Very slowly and carefully open the lid. Try not to let droplets of liquid fly out. After the gas is released. Find the mass of the bottle, lid, remaining liquid and tissue. Carefully smell the remaining contents. Compare to the smell of “fresh” vinegar.
  • Enter your data on the class spreadsheet.
  • Clean up the bottle. (No tissue down the sink!)

What do you think happened to the vinegar? What do you think happened to the baking soda? What do you think the gas might be? Where do you think the gas came from–the vinegar, the baking soda, both? How could you find out by experimentation?

6. Observe the use of the ball and stick molecular models to describe the reaction of acetic acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate (vinegar and baking soda).

The reactants are vinegar and baking soda. Vinegar is a solution of 5% acetic acid and 95% water. Baking soda is also called sodium hydrogen carbonate. The products are carbon dioxide, sodium acetate, and water. The reaction can be represented as: (NaHCO3 + HC2H3O2 → NaC2H3O2 + H2O + CO ).  Can you tell which symbols refer to which molecules?

See a representation of the reaction using “ball and stick” molecular models. See if you can follow the changes:

White ball = hydrogen; black ball = carbon; red ball = oxygen; silver ball = sodium; gray stick = bond (c0valent); purple stick = bond (ionic)

2 “rules” for reactions:

  • All atoms from the reactants end up somewhere–they do not disappear and new ones do not appear.
  • The reaction takes place in the fewest number of steps.

A. startreactvbs

B.

midreactvbs

C.

endreactvbsCarry out the reaction yourself using the ball and stick models.

If this model is good, it should allow you to predict the combining amounts. Look at your periodic table. Find the atomic weights for each element in the reactants. Convert the atomic weights to grams. Remember that the acetic acid is diluted to 5%. How close is this predicted ratio of a complete reaction to your empirical amount? If your empirical result is hugely different from your predicted amount, how do you resolve this discrepancy? Why do you think there is a difference? What can you do to check your work–empirical and mathematical (theoretical) and the thinking/reasoning?

7. Review and share your Matter chart that links observations with explanations.

8. Read this document Fundamental questions about matter  or

Fundamental-questions-about-matter

9. Identify the parts for which you have examples in your own experience.

10. Identify the parts for which you have questions.

11. Review your understanding of atom, molecule, element, compound, physical change, chemical change/chemical reaction, mass, volume, conservation of mass, states of matter, boiling point temperature plateau, freezing point temperature plateau, dissolving, solution, precipitation, crystallization, crystal form, evaporation, rate of reaction, histogram, density, evidence, argument.

10. Note any questions that you have.

 

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29 October Science 7 Force and acceleration resumed; Newton’s Laws

Welcome back from WOW.

a. Mindful moment. Close your eyes and think of the most beautiful or calming sight you saw during WOW. Focus on that for a few minutes while you practice your mindful breathing.

b. Look back at your DSN for the last class entries devoted to motion.

c. Preview today’s blog post.

d. Prepare your DSN entries for today. We will do some writing about WOW first–some of that writing will go into in your Biodiversity folder and the rest in your Motion folder.

e. Questions.

  • * * * *

For Today:

  1. In your biodiversity folder, write an account of your sightings, thoughts, questions, reflections on the living things you noticed and observed during WOW (you can include scenes from the train and bus). Include sketches. Mention the various habitats where you saw the organisms. Reflect on how the living and non-living things in the environment interact and depend on one another.
  2. In your motion folder, share some of the important experiences with motion. What did you notice while traveling, for example, on the train and bus? What about the zipline? What was your average speed? What was your maximum speed?  (Here is a video of Mr. M. can you use it to figure out speed? <https://www.facebook.com/kylemargenau/videos/10156147710904125/> The first part of the zipline is 400 meter. The return trip is 350 meters.What about the motion of the river? How did you explain the complex currents in the Ganga? What did you do to try to assess the velocity of the small river (Huel) at the Himalayan Bear Stream Camp? Did you notice the apparent motion of the sun during the day? What about the moon? The planets (Mars was quite visible every night)? The stars?
  3. The next items are to be recorded in your DSN entry in your motion folder.
  4. Review your understanding of motion: distance, time, frame of reference, speed, velocity, constant speed, constant velocity, inertia, changing speed, changing velocity, acceleration, distance vs. time graphs, speed calculations, units.
  5. We defined force as a measurable push or pull that causes a change in the velocity of an object. A spring scale is used to measure force. The force being measured is compared to an equal and opposite force being exerted by the spring. A constant force produces a constant acceleration (not a constant speed). At this point, clarify for yourself what the difference is between speed and acceleration, between velocity and acceleration.
  6. Look at the data and graphs below. They are selected from the trials completed with the big cart in periods 3 and 4. What do you notice about each case? Be sure to ask questions about anything you do not understand.
  7. What is the difference between the results of a single push and of repeated (intermittent) pushes?
  8. On a single distance vs. time graph, show the results of the cart’s motion with 8 lbs, 10 lbs, and 12 lbs of force. Reflect on the data from these three cases.
  9. Thought experiment–draw what you think the result will be regarding the motion of an object being spun on a string around a central point after the string is released. Make a sketch of the path your expect. Explain why you expect this.
  10. New concepts coming up: Momentum, Conservation of momentum, Circular motion, Centripetal acceleration, Gravity as a (rather mysterious) force that operates at a distance–no strings attached, Work, Energy, Conservation of Energy, Forms of Energy.
  • * * * *

Cart moving with one push before the starting line.

Time (seconds)  Distance (meters)

0 0
0.42 1
1 2
1.48 3
1.91 4
2.67 5
3.24 6

 

 

*****

Cart pulled with 8 pound force (as constant as we could make it).

Time (seconds) Distance (meters)

0 0
2.43 1
3.39 2
4.34 3
4.68 4
5.55 5
5.93 6

 

*****

Cart pulled with 10 pound force (as constant as we could make it)

Time (seconds) Distance (meters)

0 0
2.21 1
2.97 2
3.74 3
4.43 4
5.05 5
5.54 6

Distance in meters vs. time in seconds for a cart being pulled with a constant force of 10 pounds

*****

Cart pulled with 12 pound force (as constant as we could make it)

Time (seconds)                                                     Distance (meters)

0 0
1.75 1
3.14 2
3.64 3
4.26 4
4.77 5
5.01 6

Distance in meters vs. time in seconds for a cart being pulled with a constant force of 12 pounds.

 

 

 

 

 

*****

Cart moving with intermittent impulse delivered in the same direction and of equal magnitude (as best we could do).

Time (seconds)    Distance (meters)

0 0
1.3 1
2.14 2
3.2 3
3.54 4
4 5
4.08 6

Distance in meters vs. Time in seconds for a cart receiving intermittent impulses of equal magnitude in the same direction as the direction of travel.

 

 

Remember

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18 October Science 8 Getting ready for WOW–Water and Rivers

  1. Mindful moment. “We Wash Our Bowls” by Gary Snyder–

Water Watersheds Rafting Rivers Mountains Life

Water and Rivers

We Wash Our Bowls in this Water  by Gary Snyder

Click on the link below. Then click on poems. Then click on We Wash Our Bowls in this Water.

Gary Snyder

2. Check previous DSN. Make sure your data is entered on previous spreadsheets. Make sure you have reviewed and reflected on all experiments and all data. (Look at 1718 data, too)

We will have an interruption in our study of chemical reactions, so it is very important that you KEEP IN VIEW the ideas we have been discussing and exploring.

3. See today’s blogpost and plan.

4. Create DSN entry in a new folder called Earth Cycles. Put all your notes and writing from today in this folder.

5. Questions.

  • * * * * *

Write a reflective response to the poem. It is about Water (of course) and has references and vocabulary related to rafting intertwined. It also has references to Asia and Asian landscapes. What does the poet suggest about the relation of water to landscape? What are the different ways the poet alludes to the significance of water?

What is your experience with rivers? Describe the different rivers you have known?

What do you anticipate about rafting on the Ganges during WOW 8? Do you know where you will be rafting? sleeping? eating? hanging out?

What are the properties of water–at many scales? How do these properties determine the behavior and interaction of water with us? with the physical earth? with the living earth? with the entire earth system?

What do you think the opening epigraph means: “The 1.5 billion cubic kilometers of water on the earth are split by photosynthesis and reconstituted once every two million years or so.” ?

Explore these maps and aerial photographs:

AES

Questions: What part of Delhi is AES in? What part of India is AES in?

Our train

Question: How does it compare to other trains you’ve taken?

New Delhi Railway Station

Question: Can you find the likely route from AES to the New Delhi Railway Station?

The route

Questions:

How long in kilometers do you estimate the train ride to be? In which stations/cities/towns do you think the train will stop?

At one point on the trip the train changes directions—if you were facing forward you will now face backwards and vice versa. Can you find the place where you think this will happen?

Zoom along the route—farmland

Photo from the train

Questions:

What crops can you identify? What do you see people doing in the fields? What farm products do you see being transported on the roads? Do you have any connection with these products? You might be very fond of the crop being harvested in the picture. Any guesses?

What wild and or domesticated animals do you expect to see along the way?

From Haridwar to Rishikesh

Notice the terrain changes from Haridwar into the foothills. What do you think the different colors on the map mean? What do you think the lines mean? <http://s.hswstatic.com/gif/how-to-read-topographic-map-2.jpg>. The high Himalaya are not shown on this section of map. How much higher do you think they get? Look at the segment of the Ganges shown. What direction is it flowing (of course it is flowing downhill), but what compass direction does it flow from point to point along the portion that is shown? Why do you think that happens? 8th graders will raft much of the section of river that you see in the map. Find out about the term: Watershed.

 

 

 

Look at the aerial photo and try to trace the river down stream. Rapids are named on some of the areas when you zoom to a certain scale.

http://wikimapia.org/#lang=en&lat=30.145721&lon=78.598080&z=14&m=b&search=alaknanda%20river

This link is to a very nice booklet on river dynamics for rafting:

http://faculty.frostburg.edu/rpm/rkauffman/pdf_files/River%20Dynamics-Raft.pdf

The booklet also appears at this link but is not so convenient as the pdf version:

https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/31888300/river-dynamics-rafting-frostburg/34

Ecological and strategic importance of Tibetan Plateau: http://www.meltdownintibet.com/

At the moment the three episodes of a BBC documentary are available on dailymotion

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x1e1mkw

https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x40rs0v

https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x40rnfr

Killing the Ganges with Justin Rowlatt (AES parent)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hF1dUbSPuUA

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17 October Science 7 WOW preparation–River Walk–Binoculars Birds and Trees

  • Mindful moment.
  • Past DSN entry.
  • Today’s plan Blogpost
  • Create today’s DSN entry in Biodiversity folder.
  • Questions.

* * * * *

Using binoculars:

  • Always hung around neck.
  • Do not touch glass on lenses.
  • Keep dry and clean.
  • Do not drop.
  • Focus left eye first with main focusing knob. Then focus right eye with fine focus.
  • Open binoculars to fit distance between eyes. You should see one circular field of view.
  • Locate object of interest with eyes (no binoculars). Then raise binoculars to eyes while maintaining view of object. Learn how to do this to bring object into magnified view. It takes a little practice. (Do not try to search/scan with binoculars).
  • Practice following a bird, butterfly, dragonfly and keeping it in view while using the binoculars.
  • Practice keeping something in view while removing and raising binoculars.
  • Always return binoculars in good condition at the end of an activity.

How do you know what to look for when observing living things?

  • Observation schemes.
  • Always make note of time, date, location, conditions (weather, etc.)
  • 7 S’s of Bird-watching
  • Size, Silhouette, Shade, Sweep, Sound, Sign (including behavior), Surroundings

Tree-watching (specimen vs. species)

  • GBH
  • Leaf shape, size, structure, arrangement
  • Branching pattern
  • Habit
  • Flowers shape, size, structure, arrangement
  • Fruits shape, size, structure, arrangement
  • Bark

Plans for WOW 7 Science

  1. River walk–Along the Ganga (now paired with Zipline)
  2. Stream survey (Life in the stream)
  3. Riparian corridor (Life along the stream)
  4. Village walk (Human life in the valley)
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