5 October Science 7 Consolidating and Continuing Concepts of Motion

Today–let’s see where we are in our study of motion. Let’s begin by considering quantities and units used to measure and analyze motion. The techniques for measurement and analysis help define the concepts.

  • Space
  • meter (originally defined at 1 10,ooo,ooo of the distance from the earth to the equator)
  • Time
  • second (an early definition was debated as the period of 2 seconds (over and back) of a pendulum that has a length of (nearly) a meter; other methods involved subdividing a day based on observations of the sun or moon).
  • Speed
  • meters / second
  • Velocity (includes direction)
  • meters / second with the direction (straight) specified
  • Force (includes direction)
  • kilogram x meters/second2 (called a Newton)
  • Acceleration (includes direction)
  • meters / second / second; meters/seconds2
  • Work-Energy
  • Newton x meter = Kilogram x meter2 / seconds2 =Joule
  • Vector is a quantity that includes direction. Solving basic vector problems requires the use of algebra and geometry..
  • Sample data
  • Constant Acceleration
  • 0 m/s at 0 seconds; 1 m/s at 1 second; 2 m/s at 2 seconds; 3 m/s at 3 seconds; 4 m/s at 4 seconds; 5 m/s at 5 seconds.  Rate of acceleration 1 m/s/s. The speed changes 1 m/s every second.
  • Make a velocity vs. time graph
  • Acceleration due to gravity
  • From http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-5/How-Fast-and-How-Far
  • Instantaneous velocity—graphical method
  • Clay drop–“mystery of comparing the falls of lighter and heavier objects (not significantly affected by friction with the air–air resistance). Also class data from dropping a sizable lump of clay from various heights on the outdoor stairway.
  • Rotational motion—a demonstration to consider the importance of inertia and the idea that velocity includes direction
  • Newton’s 3 Laws
  • MomentumMass x velocity; Kg x meters/second
  • Conservation of Momentum–a simple suggestive demonstration
  • Air Pressure WaterRockets–design, performance, principles of Newtonian motion
  • Designing a rocket, building a rocket, predicting its performance, conducting launches (2 guaranteed), measuring and evaluating launches, creating a visual description AND explanation (no words, letters, or numerals. 2nd Summative project on motion. More details coming on what needs to be included.

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