- Questions about relative motion and frames of reference.
- Calculate (can also use graphical technique where you have good data and a graph) the average speeds from situations on the board.
- Form 3 person groups.
- Watch the following claims about the “Tumble Buggy.”
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k7fjD4hkmR4

**The Tumble Buggy 2017-2018 ****Summative assessment Science 7 Motion Frazier **

**(developed with help from 7 ^{th} graders 2015-2016)**

** 3**** class meetings for gathering and analyzing data and writing**

**Final written report due at the beginning of the 13th of September (print paper copy and digital copy in digital science notebook)**

** ****Basic Problem: The toy car called a “Tumble Buggy” is sold as a constant velocity vehicle, meaning the speed is constant and the direction straight. Can this claim be supported? Students will d****etermine the speed and direction (velocity) of the “Tumble Buggy” and figure out the extent to which the velocity is constant.**

Groups of 3 work together to obtain data.

Individuals analyze the results write individual reports.

You will need to:

Develop methods for determining the speed of the tumble buggy and describing the direction.

Some things to keep in mind:

- Speed and time are related but they are not the same thing.
- You will need to develop a fair and consistent way to start the car and to time its motion.
- You will need to run trials in different directions to find out the extent to which the floor affects the results (floor may not be perfectly level).
- You will need to conduct a sufficient number of trials to establish how reliable and consistent the data are.
- You will need to decide what kind of average is best to use for the times of repeated trials: median or mean.
- You will need to try various distances to establish whether the speed is constant.
- You will need to measure distance and time carefully, accurately, consistently.
- What will you do if the buggy does not run perfectly straight? Why?
- You will need to graph the results (distance on the vertical axis and mean or median time from repeated trials on the horizontal axis).
- You will need to calculate average speeds (distance traveled / time elapsed). Which average speed will you report if the average speed of each trial varies?
- To what extent is the speed constant? If it is not constant, how much does it vary?
- To what extent does the car go straight? How much does it vary from straight? How will you describe the variation in direction?
- What variables affect the results? What variables do you control?

Communicate findings in a written form (using the following headings). Be generous in your writing. Be specific. Use examples to illustrate your points.

Title—What is the velocity of the Tumble Buggy? How constant is the speed and what is the value? How much does the Tumble Buggy deviate from a straight course?

- Background (What have you learned about motion before this assessment project? Describe experiences and new knowledge. Mention learning about how to measure motion, how to analyze data, how to write a scientific report.)
- Questions (expressed in a clear form)
- Expected answer (before doing the experiment) and reasons why expected
- Methods or Procedures (written in 1
^{st}/3^{rd}person and past tense; not written as commands)

- How was data acquired
- How was data analyzed (graphs and calculations)
- Photos and diagrams can help explain what you did

- Results

- Table of results (organized and labeled)
- Appropriate, well-made graphs
- Photos
- Well-organized anecdotal notes and descriptions

- Analysis or Interpretation

Relate findings to question. Use evidence to support claim of what speed of the Tumble Buggy is and whether speed is constant. Refer to scientific concepts relevant to the problem. Discuss the size of any variation in results and factors contributing to variation in results. Relate analysis of data to what you have mentioned learning in background.

- Conclusion Summary and New Questions

Summarize results and suggest new questions and propose new experiments to investigate the tumble buggy and its velocity (speed and direction), motion, and performance.

Meeting—Includes details of practice and reasoning. Makes accurate measurements. Constructs correct graphs and makes correct calculations (including units). Demonstrates understanding of techniques for acquiring and analyzing data relevant to motion. Demonstrates understanding of the concept of average speed.

Standards

__Disciplinary Core Ideas__

Forces and motion

__Cross-Cutting Concepts__

Patterns

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Stability and Change

__Science and Engineering Practices__

Asking questions and defining problems

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Using mathematics and computational thinking

Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Engaging in argument from evidence

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.