Menu of options for Motion Investigation Project (Summative Assessment)–work time and due dates to be determined in class.
Some options provide more guidance—read all options carefully before choosing. Be sure to check out the linked documents and pages. You may work with a partner in order to gather data, BUT the final products are individual. (Groups of 3 for comeback can, constant velocity car with permission.)
A. Pendulums B. Comeback Can C. Constant Velocity Car
D. ArtScience E.Motion Toys F. Spinning Tops G. Independent and Original
A. Carefully read the guidelines: Pendulums (see this link: Pendulums2015)
- Keep track of the things you try. Describe any procedures carefully. For example, how do you measure the height of release. Use photos and sketches to help with your descriptions. Keep well-labeled tables. Make appropriate graphs.
- Basic question(s):
- What factor(s) determines the period and frequency of a simple pendulum?
- What happens to the speed of the pendulum bob? How do the period, frequency, and speed of the bob relate?
- What is your explanation for the behavior of the pendulum? Why, for example, do you think the factors impact the frequency and period of the pendulum as they do?
- Advanced investigations:
- Make more complicated pendulums (double, coupled, complex, etc.) and examine, describe, and explain their behavior. See this pendulum system: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhMiuzyU1ag
B. Carefully read the guidelines: Come-back Can (see this link: THE-COMEBACK-CAN-1415)
- Keep track of all the things you try, the results, and your next moves. You should have a complete record of your thinking from first proposal through the final version. “Failures” should be reported and analyzed.
- Once you design and build a “successful” comeback can:
- Find out as many aspects (parameters) of its behavior as you can. (Maximum number of out and back trips, maximum forward distance under a defined, controlled release, etc.)
- Explain the mechanism that you think causes the can to move as it does. (For example, if you use an elastic band with a weight, what do you think the band does? What happens to the weight?)
- Propose and implement test(s) of your explanation.
- “Improve” the design and performance of a comeback can. (Define “improve.”)
C. Carefully read the guidelines: Constant Velocity Car
See the claims by the science supplier: http://www.arborsci.com/constant-velocity-car
For reference–not meant for you to copy or emulate–you may, however, find these interesting to evaluate and to compare to your own investigation:
Test the claim. Include the following:
- a thorough spoken and written description of the thinking that developed during the investigation.
- sufficient and reliable data
- data tables
- appropriate graphs
- your considered answer to the question–To what extent does the toy car exhibit constant velocity?
- a value for the average speed
- a measure of any deviation from straight-line motion (remember the walking straight experiment)
- an indication (quantitative if possible) of variation from the average speed observed in your car
- an explanation of how the car works and what aspects in particular contribute to its constant and/or changing velocity.
- a full reflection on how your understanding of motion has developed throughout our study—including how the investigation of the toy car contributed to your learning and understanding.
D. Carefully read the guidelines: ArtScience (see this link: artscience1415)
You should be able to explain clearly what your creation has to do with our study of motion (position, time, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, Newton’s Laws of Motion, inertia, etc.). (A POOR connection would be to say something like, “We made a painting and it has to do with motion because we had to move the paintbrush.”)
Consider this question as a way to relate originality/creativity in art and discovering/inventin in science: How does your work show both you AND the viewer something that is not already known?
See this article: scienceart
Video, pictures, and reflection on one project from the past:
Check out this science-art picture from the AES website: https://www.facebook.com/AmericanEmbassySchoolNewDelhi/photos/a.384454041722974.1073741828.337997143035331/397055197129525/?type=1
E. Carefully read the guidelines: The Science of Motion Toys
Investigate “traditional” motion toys (minimum 3). Two examples are shown below. There are many others. We will put tops into a separate category–see below.
Walking camel .
Walking elephant 1 .
Walking elephant 2 .
Conduct measurements (several trials) to determine the parameters of performance. Make an attempt to construct your own examples. Keep notes (written and photographic) of your investigation. Develop an explanation of each toy—how it works (the mechanism and the physical principles). Apply the various motion concepts we have covered in class. Describe any new concepts needed for your descriptions and explanations. Produce a written narrative of your work and a multimedia presentation. Write a full reflection on how your understanding of motion has developed throughout our study—including how the investigation of the toys has contributed to your learning.
F. Carefully read the guidelines: The Science of Tops and Spinning Things
See some examples of tops at: http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2015/02/17/tops-science-7-interesting-motion/
Investigate several different tops (minimum 4). Conduct measurements (several trials) to determine the parameters of performance of each example. Make an attempt to construct your own tops. Keep notes (written and photographic) of your investigation. Develop an explanation of each top—how it works (the mechanism and the physical principles). Of course, some principles apply to all tops. Include those in your analysis and also explain distinctions in the performance of the different kinds of top. Apply the various motion concepts we have covered in class. Describe any new concepts needed for your descriptions and explanations. Produce a written narrative of your work and a multimedia presentation. Write a full reflection on how your understanding of motion has developed throughout our study—including how the investigation of the tops has contributed to your learning.
Non-inertial frames of reference. See the video–about halfway through there are some experiments with a rotating table: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aRDOqiqBUQY
Playing catch on a merry-go-round:
G. Independent and original option.
Read all the projects. Develop an original investigation, problem or project related to motion. Submit a proposal showing how it demonstrates meeting the standards. Must be safe, appropriate (reasonable and relevant), and doable with our resources. Carry out your plan. Produce a written narrative, a multimedia presentation, and a reflection equivalent in quality and size to the other options.
Use the Semester 2 Standards (Meeting, Approaching, Beginning) to organize, compose, and proofread-edit your project:
- Explains motion in terms of frames of reference
- Analyzes graphs depicting motion and predicted future motion
- Describes, identifies examples, and illustrates Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Generates questions that arise from careful observations
- Designs multi-step investigations to test questions
- Uses proper tools and makes accurate measurements
- Organizes and displays data appropriately (e.g. data tables, graphing)
- Analyzes data using basic statistics
- Makes logical inferences from data to construct valid explanations
- Evaluates the significance of the findings
- Proposes modifications and new questions for future investigations
- Uses scientific language to articulate findings from investigations, text and other sources
- Communicates scientific ideas in multiple formats (i.e. written, oral, visual)