29 August Science 8 Crystals, Brownian Motion, Density, Solubility–The atomic theory of matter

On a piece of lined paper:

  • Describe density in your own words. How can the differences in the densities of water, sunflower oil, and ethanol be explained? Make a sketch of your idea.
  • What was challenging for you in determining the densities of water, sunflower oil, and ethanol?
  • What do you think happens when substances like salt and sugar dissolve in water? Make a sketch of your idea.

The results from previous class:

https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1AwmoUXxJDUFW67pJYNVY59jpu_TpbImx-YP2J3P5UDs/edit?usp=sharing

Crystallization

  • Make super-saturated solutions with 3 substances (see board) and hot water.
  • Let the solutions cool in petri dishes.
  • If time, silver crystals from a reaction of copper and silver nitrate.

Observe Brownian motion.

Discuss the density results. dissolving and solubility.

Relate observations to the atomic theory of matter (also called the molecular theory of matter or the kinetic-molecular theory of matter).

Use the chart below to help you organize your observations and ideas about matter:

Consider these big questions (KEEP IN VIEW-KIV QUESTIONS AND IDEAS):

  • What can we observe about the structure and behavior of matter?
  • How can we explain what we observe (at the scale of our senses) by structures, entities, and behaviors at a scale we cannot see?
  • How can such explanations be tested?
MATTER
LARGE SCALE OBSERVATIONS
LINKING EVIDENCE
ATOMIC-MOLECULAR SCALE STRUCTURES AND BEHAVIORS
DATA
ARGUMENT
THEORY

Be sure to examine the following references:

Review the document: Fundamental-questions-about-matter

Extensions for our study of matter–The Periodic Table

See the following videos–express your ideas and questions.

http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-genius-of-mendeleev-s-periodic-table-lou-serico

Hunting the Elements

https://youtu.be/TDY59XoFSQI

World within World from the Ascent of Man by Jacob Bronowski

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x20o2dw_bbc-ascent-of-man-10-world-within-world_tv

Elements and the economy:http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01rcrn6/episodes/guide

 

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24 and 26 August Science 7 Analyzing motion in the “staged races” — Constructing and interpreting position vs. time graphs

On board today–also refer to previous blog below:

26augboard

Make predicted / expected sketch graphs for the following events (a sketch graph shows the axes and labels, the graph line, but no numbers or plotted points–and you do not need graph paper. It is what you think the graph will look like):

  • Steady Walk, Steady Jog, Steady Run (on the same graph)
  • Slow to Fast and Fast to Slow (on the same graph)
  • A sprint
  • The tortoise and hare (on the same graph–remember that they tied in our version)

Explain your expectations.

The link for the spreadsheet of results for periods 5,6, and 8 Staged Races.

https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1beA1lJRlEncAx_gjEdCyWY_Q56GMm8MAsRSvaxoGe5g/edit?usp=sharing

The first graph will be demonstrated and constructed as a class.

Graphing guidelines–ALWAYS follow these steps in this order.

  1. Only use pencil. NO ink until graph is checked and approved.
  2. Find the median or mean when there are multiple measures. (If 3, take the middle value. If 2, split the difference and use that value. If 3 and 2 are the same, use the value that is repeated.)
  3. Look at the maximum and minimum for each variable. (In this case the variables are position or distance AND time.
  4. Decide how to orient the graph paper–portrait or landscape. (Your choice. One might be preferred–depends on the data and scale.)
  5. Label each axis with the name of the variable and the unit. For this kind of motion graph, Position will always be plotted on the vertical axis. Meters will be our unit. Time will always be plotted on the horizontal axis. Seconds will be our unit. One axis shows the “where” and the other axis shows the “when.”
  6. Select a scale that is convenient, covers all the data, consistent, and covers at least half the page.
  7. Scale refers to the value of 1 division on the graph paper. (It is not the number of squares for 1 unit, rather the values of units for 1 square).
  8. Convenience means the numbers are “friendly” and that the graph is easy to use. Here is a series of scale factors that are “convenient:” Let 1 division on the graph paper = .01, .02, .05 or .1, ,2 ,5 or 1, 2, 5 or 10, 20, 50 or 100, 200, 500, etc. Any other scale factor will make reading the graph more difficult. (This guideline may be different from how you have made graphs in the past. Using scale factors from this series will mean your graph is always well-scaled.
  9. Mark the scales on each axis. Each axis will have a different scale factor because different variables are being plotted.
  10. Plot the values for each data point. (Because we used multiple timers, we will select only one of the times–the median–to plot.) Plotting means marking both the where and the when of the moving object at each observation point and time.
  11. Once the points are plotted, you will need to decide how to connect them and what connecting them means. We will discuss interpretations of the graphs and the motions.
  12. Add a title, your name, period, and date.
  13. Take a clear photo of any hand-made graph and upload it to your digital science notebook.
  14. If an explanation or interpretation is assigned, be sure that accompanies your graph in the DSN.

When your group finishes constructing, discussing, and interpreting the different graphs (everyone understands), try these thought experiments in order:

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25 August–Density and Solubility

Bring your digital science notebooks up to date. Individual conferences are possible next week. Each class entry should have: 1. Regular notes, 2. what we did, 3. what we saw, 4. what we talked about, 5. what I think and wonder., 6. a picture to help me think and wonder, 7. a sketch to help me think and wonder.

Blogpost (Science 8 category) on Food, water, air and matter

Blogpost (Science 8 category) on Peter Atkins Introduction–My reaction to his ideas about how greed and the balance influenced chemistry.

Take a few moments to show your table partners your notebook and blog.

Aug. 17, 19, 23, 25 (as of today)

Exploring the relationship between the two fundamental characteristics of matter (matter has mass; matter takes up space).

Determine the density of several liquids and solutions and contemplate the significance in terms of the structure and behavior of matter and possible explanations based on the particle theory of matter.

To determine liquid density (see board for additional information):

  • Follow all additional instructions in class–especially regarding safety and clean-up.
  • Find the mass of a clean and dry graduated cylinder (100 ml capacity) and record.
  • Add 100 ml of the liquid / solution of interest and find the mass.
  • Subtract the mass of the cylinder from the mass of the cylinder plus 100 ml liquid. The remainder is the mass of 100 ml of the liquid.
  • The density is the ratio of the mass in grams of the particular sample of liquid to the volume (100 ml) you have selected. Density is reported as g / cm3 or g / ml (grams per cubic centimeter or grams / milliliter). One way to think of density is that it tells you what the mass of 1 ml of the liquid.
  • Add your data to the class spreadsheet.

Take note of the substances available (tap water, ethanol, cooking oil, table sugar–also called sucrose, table salt–also called sodium chloride. Begin learning how different substances are named  and described. For example, table salt = sodium chloride = NaCl.

Follow instructions given in class carefully.

See if you can find out more about the molecules making up each substance. (See board.) (Article on fats and oils: http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/pdf/Fats&Oils.pdf )

Why might different substances have different densities?

Solubility:

How much salt can be dissolved into 100 ml of water?

We will use tap water.

  • Design a system to keep track of the mass of salt you add to the sample of water.
  • You want to add just the right amount so that no more dissolves and none is left as a visible solid at the bottom of the beaker. You need to add carefully and slowly.
  • Think of how you can add and stir but not contaminate your starting supply of salt with water.
  • When you think you have reached the saturation point, make a note of the mass of salt that has been added and dissolved. You would report this solubility at grams of substance dissolved / 100 ml water. This ratio resembles density, but is different. How is it different?
  • When you get a saturated solution, find its density.
  • After finding the density, pour some of your saturated solution in a dish labelled with your name, date, and period. Set the dish on the back counter. We will see what happens as the water evaporates of the next days.
  • After determining the solubility of salt in water, and then finding the density of a saturated salt solution, do the same for table sugar.
  • Add your results to the class spreadsheets. You will need to have Dr. F change the sharing settings for you to add your data: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1AwmoUXxJDUFW67pJYNVY59jpu_TpbImx-YP2J3P5UDs/edit?usp=sharing

Find out what you can about salt and sugar at the level of atoms and molecules.

How might you explain the fact that different substances have different solubilities? What do you think happens when substances dissolve?

What does the determination of density and solubility suggest about matter? What do these larger scale quantities reveal or imply about the particle nature (atoms, molecules) of matter? Explain what you think the possibilities are.

 

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23 August Science 8 Matter–examining properties–density and solubility

Note–the questions posed in the class blog posts are meant for you to consider and address. They provide guidance on things to write about and think about in your digital science notebook entries. It is important that you keep your mind actively attuned to the questions that drive the study of matter.

Read the first paragraphs of Chapter 1 from Peter Atkins’ Chemistry: A very short introduction. (This small book might be of interest. It is well written. Paper copies and kindle copies are inexpensive–available locally. Let me know if you are interested and I can show you more.)

IMG_0589Respond to the following questions about the passage above on your blog. Categorize as science 8.

  • What do you think of Atkins’ claim that the study of matter was inspired by human greed?
  • What significance does Atkins attribute to the balance?
  • Why do you think he suggests the balance shifted the study of matter from a mysterious and somewhat magical system to a scientific one?
  • What do you think is the completing thought that follows the sentence at the end of this page? (“Weighing matter before and after it had undergone transformation from one substance to another led to the principal concept that underlies all explanations in chemistry:”)
  • What do you think the “principal concept” is?
  • Why?

************

Today we will explore the relationship between the two fundamental characteristics of matter (matter has mass; matter takes up space). We will determine the density of several liquids and solutions. And contemplate the significance in terms of the structure and behavior of matter and the possible explanations based on the particle theory of matter.

To determine liquid density:

  • Follow all additional instructions in class–especially regarding safety and clean-up.
  • Find the mass of a clean and dry graduated cylinder (100 ml capacity) and record.
  • Add 100 ml of the liquid / solution of interest and find the mass.
  • Subtract the mass of the cylinder from the mass of the cylinder plus 100 ml liquid. The remainder is the mass of 100 ml of the liquid.
  • The density is the ratio of the mass in grams of the particular sample of liquid to the volume (100 ml) you have selected. Density is reported as g / cm3 or g / ml (grams per cubic centimeter or grams / milliliter). One way to think of density is that it tells you what the mass of 1 ml of the liquid.
  • Add your data to the class spreadsheet.

Take note of the substances available (tap water, ethanol, cooking oil, table sugar–also called sucrose, table salt–also called sodium chloride. Begin learning how different substances are named  and described. For example, table salt = sodium chloride = NaCl.

Follow instructions given in class carefully.

See if you can find out more about the molecules making up each substance. (See board.) (Article on fats and oils: http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/pdf/Fats&Oils.pdf )

Why might different substances have different densities?

Solubility:

How much salt can be dissolved into 100 ml of water?

We will use tap water.

  • Design a system to keep track of the mass of salt you add to the sample of water.
  • You want to add just the right amount so that no more dissolves and none is left as a visible solid at the bottom of the beaker. You need to add carefully and slowly.
  • Think of how you can add and stir but not contaminate your starting supply of salt with water.
  • When you think you have reached the saturation point, make a note of the mass of salt that has been added and dissolved. You would report this solubility at grams of substance dissolved / 100 ml water. This ratio resembles density, but is different. How is it different?
  • When you get a saturated solution, find its density.
  • After finding the density, pour some of your saturated solution in a dish labelled with your name, date, and period. Set the dish on the back counter. We will see what happens as the water evaporates of the next days.
  • After determining the solubility of salt in water, and then finding the density of a saturated salt solution, do the same for table sugar.
  • Add your results to the class spreadsheets.

Find out what you can about salt and sugar at the level of atoms and molecules.

How might you explain the fact that different substances have different solubilities? What do you think happens when substances dissolve?

What does the determination of density and solubility suggest about matter? What do these larger scale quantities reveal or imply about the particle nature (atoms, molecules) of matter? Explain what you think the possibilities are.

 

 

 

 

caption

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22 August Science 7 — Staged races — motion events, data, graphs, concepts

*Today’s activity is contingent on weather. Period 5, we will finish your presentations on Wed. Tuesday and Wednesday science periods are being used for school photos, so we need to be in our classroom.

Today we will conduct a series of “staged races” in order to observe and measure various kinds of motion. The techniques we use will help us see and understand how scientists look at motion.

We first need to define or construct a “frame of reference” which is just a track where we can observe the motion of a student or students moving in one direction (one dimension). We will mark the positions of observers and note the time when the “mover(s)” cross the observation points. These data can then be plotted on a line graph to show visually certain aspects and details of the motion. Your goal will be to link what you see happen in each event with the data, graphs, and concepts.

Some target terms for you to learn and use during our study of motion: Frame of reference, Direction, Dimension, Position, Distance, Time, Duration, Relative motion, Mass, Speed, Constant speed, Average speed, Instantaneous speed,Velocity,Vector,   Acceleration, Force, Gravity, Weight, Momentum, Conservation of Momentum, Rate, Slope, Steep, Shallow, Horizontal, Vertical. Please ask about any terms we use that are unfamiliar to you. Start a word list and work on learning and using new vocabulary.

Look closely at the pictures:

IMG_5885

stagedrace

 

 

 

 

 

What are some things you see that are important for observing and measuring a motion event?

We will establish the procedure in class.

We will need record keepers, timers, movers.

See data table headings below:

Period / Name(s)/ Event / Time (s) at Om/5m/10m/15m/20m/25m / Other obs.

While we are organizing data, work on this thought-experiment: http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/files/2014/02/howfar.pdf

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19 August Science 8 Continuing our study of matter

Consider these big questions (KEEP IN VIEW-KIV QUESTIONS AND IDEAS):

  • What can we observe about the structure and behavior of matter?
  • How can we explain what we observe (at the scale of our senses) by structures, entities, and behaviors at a scale we cannot see?
  • How can such explanations be tested?
MATTER
LARGE SCALE OBSERVATIONS
LINKING EVIDENCE
ATOMIC-MOLECULAR SCALE STRUCTURES AND BEHAVIORS
DATA
ARGUMENT
THEORY

Today we will finish the activity of dissolving a crystal of potassium permanganate and then diluting the solution until the color just disappears. The purpose of this activity is to help us contemplate the size of particles–atoms and combinations of atoms called molecules.

A big challenge in studying matter is to link the behavior of matter that you can observe at a macroscopic scale to inferred behavior of atoms and molecules at a scale we cannot see.

You should have already found the mass and volume of a crystal. You may repeat this again with a new crystal or you may estimate from your previous example.

  • Put the crystal of potassium permanganate in a test tube. Add 1 cm of water. Dissolve the crystal completely by shaking vigorously with your thumb over the end of the test tube. Then add water to a total volume of 10 cm. This is a ‘10 times’ dilution. Pour this 10 cmof purple solution into a 100 cmbeaker and then fill up the beaker with water. This is now ‘100 times’ dilution. Fill the 10 cmtest tube with this solution and throw the rest away. Dilute this again in the beaker to 100 cm. It is now a ‘1000 times’ dilution.
  • How many times can the solution be diluted by a factor of 10 before the color is so pale that it is just visible?
  •  *The final dilution factor indicates that if matter is made of small particles, that these particles must be very, very small.
  • FYI–Potassium permanganate has the chemical formula: KMnO4–this means there is one atom of potassium (K), one atom of Manganese (Mn), and 4 atoms of Oxygen (O) in one molecule.

Points of reflection–for your digital science notebook entry:

  • What do you think happens when something dissolves?
  • Examine and react to the following sketch:potpermansketch
  • When you reach the final dilution, what inference can you make about the “size” of a particle of the substance? (It is much much smaller than you can imagine.)
  • Why would more of one substance dissolve in a certain amount of water than another substance? Why would there be differences in solubility?
  • What differences do you think there are between dissolving and melting?
  • How do you imagine that light interacts with matter? What makes the crystal and solutions purple?
  • How do you think light interacts with your eye?
  • What are your own questions and ideas?
  • Be prepared to share with the class.

There is much information about matter and about the scientific explanations of matter–books, videos, webites, etc. Such sources make many claims. The videos below contain many examples of claims. Ask yourself, how did people find these things out? What evidence led them to such inferences and conclusions?

What are some of your ideas about the following? You may look at them. We will discuss in class at some point:

ATOMSCELLS BUBBLES MELTING LEMONADE

 

 

 

 

 


 




How did scientists find out about

  1. the existence of atoms/molecules?
  2. the size of atoms/molecules?
  3. the structure of atoms/molecules?
  4. the behavior of atoms / molecules?

Can you identify the evidence and follow the argument?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQ3mjb9BSaU

Review the document: Fundamental-questions-about-matter

Extensions for our study of matter–The Periodic Table

See the following videos–express your ideas and questions.

http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-genius-of-mendeleev-s-periodic-table-lou-serico

Hunting the Elements

https://youtu.be/TDY59XoFSQI

World within World from the Ascent of Man by Jacob Bronowski

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x20o2dw_bbc-ascent-of-man-10-world-within-world_tv

Elements and the economy:http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01rcrn6/episodes/guide

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18 August Science 7 Continuing with “falling bodies” and other motion puzzles

Today–15 minutes to finish gathering results on the falling of lumps of clay and organizing your presentation for the rest of the class.

What your expectations were

What did you do / try to do

What happened

How do you interpret the results / How do the “free falls” of lumps of clay of different mass compare?

(Consider: Fair tests? Patterns–does a mass twice as heavy fall in half the time? Assumptions–what are your ideas bout gravity, mass, motion, force, constant speed, changing speed, etc.? Measurement/Experimental tolerance, uncertainty, error? Repeated trials–how many are sufficient? How do you assess the reliability or precision of observations? “What” must be done to turn an observation into a piece of evidence for an inference or conclusion?

Listen to each group. Record their ideas. Compare to your own. Ask questions. Record questions.

Write a summary of the class discussion on your blog–categorized as Science 7. Due by next class. Show your parents.

Where to go from here?

Thought experiments on motion–you may look at these if you wish. We will complete/discuss in class when there is time.

Extensions for students who want to learn/know more:

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17 August Science 8 Continuing our study of matter

Just how big might a particle of matter be? Cutting matter down to size.

potpermang

  • Work in groups of 2.
  • Find the mass of the small plastic dish. Take one crystal of potassium permanganate and place in the dish and find the mass. (Remember that the mass of the crystal and dish – the mass of the (empty) dish = the mass of the crystal. Record your procedure and results (always).
  • Next put the crystal and dish under the microscope (Magiscope). (Be sure you know how to use the scope properly.) Record your observations. Make a sketch. Take photos with your Ipad.
  • Use a ruler to estimate the volume of the crystal.
  • Put the crystal of potassium permanganate in a test tube. Add 1 cm of water. Dissolve the crystal completely by shaking vigorously with your thumb over the end of the test tube. Then add water to a total volume of 10 cm. This is a ‘10 times’ dilution. Pour this 10 cmof purple solution into a 100 cmbeaker and then fill up the beaker with water. This is now ‘100 times’ dilution. Fill the 10 cmtest tube with this solution and throw the rest away. Dilute this again in the beaker to 100 cm. It is now a ‘1000 times’ dilution.
  • How many times can the solution be diluted by a factor of 10 before the color is so pale that it is just visible?
  •  *The final dilution factor indicates that if matter is made of small particles, that these particles must be very small.
  • FYI–Potassium permanganate has the chemical formula: KMnO4–this means there is one atom of potassium (K), one atom of Manganese (Mn), and 4 atoms of Oxygen (O) in one molecule.

Points of reflection:

  • How do you imagine that light interacts with matter? What makes the crystal and solutions purple?
  • How do you think light interacts with your eye?
  • What do you think happens when something dissolves?
  • Why would more of one substance dissolve in a certain amount of water than another substance? Why would there be differences in solubility?
  • What differences do you think there are between dissolving and melting?
  • What are your own questions and ideas?

Complete your notebook entry for today.

Review the document: Fundamental-questions-about-matter

Extensions for our study of matter–The Periodic Table

See the following videos–express your ideas and questions.

http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-genius-of-mendeleev-s-periodic-table-lou-serico

Hunting the Elements

https://youtu.be/TDY59XoFSQI

World within World from the Ascent of Man by Jacob Bronowski

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x20o2dw_bbc-ascent-of-man-10-world-within-world_tv

Elements and the economy: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01rcrn6/episodes/guide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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16 August Science 7 Motion Continued

A Motion Puzzle

If you drop two pieces of clay that have different masses from the same height, how will the “falling” compare for the two pieces of clay?

What do you expect? Explain.

On your WordPress blog, create a post (with Science 7 as the category). Write what you expect the result(s) to be. Write why you expect. Include any sketches you have made. (You may refer to what you have already written in your notebook–digital/paper.)

Investigate the “falling” for two lumps of clay that have different masses in groups of 3. Groups will be assigned.

  • Keep a record of your group’s discussion. (Decisions? Ideas? Things to try? Things to notice? Count? Measure?)
  • How will you try to test the ideas your group has? (How will you make sure any tests are “fair?”
  • Keep a record of the results of the things you try. (Verbal descriptions, measurements, photos, videos, other.)
  • Be prepared to share your procedures and findings.
  • Be prepared to demonstrate.
  • Be prepared to discuss the ideas of classmates.

Extension: Find out what you can about Galileo and his thinking on “falling bodies.” What distinguished Galileo’s methods for investigating physical questions from methods used earlier?

Notebook:

Be sure to have sentences on–

  1. What you did
  2. What you saw
  3. What you talked about
  4. What you think and wonder (reflect)
  5. A picture of something that helps you think and remember
  6. A sketch of something that helps you think and remember
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12 August Science 8 Continuing the study of matter

I. Review your notes, pictures and memories from the last class where we tasted watermelon, drank water, and breathed air. We briefly discussed how the intimate experiences of eating, drinking, and breathing involve personal interactions with matter. On your personal blog (WordPress) write and post a reflective paragraph entitled, “Matter—what I know, understand, and wonder about food, water, and air at the beginning of Science 8.” Be sure to categorize your post as Science 8.

Next–

II. A Lego Analogy–how can all the different kinds of materials be composed of only a limited number of building blocks? How many possible combinations are there of a limited number of kinds of building block?

  1. You will get a set of legos (for each pair of students) (same pairs as introductions).
  2. Describe the different pieces that you have. Determine the “properties” or “characteristics” of lego pieces. Make an organized chart. (Lego pieces should not be mixed between groups of students.)
  3. Record your ideas, questions, observations, etc. in your notebooks.
  4. Predict how many different objects you think you can make. Give reasons for your prediction.
  5. Begin constructing new objects with various combinations of the lego pieces. Observe and describe each new object. Have students develop a systematic way of recording their creations.
  6. After some time, stop and  compare across groups how many different objects students have made. Record and share your comments and questions.
  7. End with a discussion about atoms and molecules; elements and compounds.
  8. Find out what you can about the periodic table. See what free apps you can find for your ipads. Explore appropriate apps and websites.

III. Just how big might a particle of matter be? Cutting matter down to size.

potpermang

  • Find the mass of the small plastic dish. Take one crystal of potassium permanganate and place in the dish and find the mass. (Remember that the mass of the crystal and dish – the mass of the (empty) dish = the mass of the crystal. Record your procedure and results (always).
  • Next put the crystal and dish under the microscope (Magiscope). (Be sure you know how to use the scope properly.) Record your observations. Make a sketch. Try to take a photo with your Ipad.
  • Use a ruler to estimate the volume of the crystal.
  • Put the crystal of potassium permanganate in a test tube. Add 1 cm of water. Dissolve the crystal completely by shaking vigorously with your thumb over the end of the test tube. Then add water to a total volume of 10 cm. This is a ‘10 times’ dilution. Pour this 10 cmof purple solution into a 100 cmbeaker and then fill up the beaker with water. This is now ‘100 times’ dilution. Fill the 10 cmtest tube with this solution and throw the rest away. Dilute this again in the beaker to 100 cm. It is now a ‘1000 times’ dilution.
  • How many times can the solution be diluted by a factor of 10 before the color is so pale that it is just visible?
  •  *The final dilution factor indicates that if matter is made of small particles, that these particles must be very small.
  • FYI–Potassium permanganate has the chemical formula: KMnO4–this means there is one atom of potassium (K), one atom of Manganese (Mn), and 4 atoms of Oxygen (O) in one molecule.

IV. Review the document: Fundamental-questions-about-matter

V. Bring your notebook up to date. 

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