Experimental questions clearly articulated and suggestive of the investigation/ variables named. Systematic = variables / observables (things to observe, count, measure) are clearly defined, controlled, manipulated. Effects are accurately and clearly observed, counted, measured, determined. Multiple trials. http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2017/03/20/20-march-science-8-water-cycle-especially-watersheds-and-rivers-simulation/
Question, Set-up, Data, Analysis and Findings. Comparison with real rivers (use photos with permissions). Collective reflection on experience(s) with rivers. Thoughts on how to protect watersheds from degradation and pollution. Generously use your photos, your own diagrams, your videos (edit appropriate segments). Reference list.
Earth Cycle Summative–due date?
(a reference to stimulate your thinking–How do the properties of the substance impact large scale cycles on the earth–“Yes, small but Mighty, The Moleculer Called Water” by Natalie Angier:<http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/10/science/10angi.html>)
(Original) Story based on work with simulations, experiments with aspects of cycles. Inspired by Primo Levi’s carbon. Trace the route of a water molecule or an atom from another elemental cycle (with approval).
- (Original) Story (open format) and/or Original game or simulation
- Movement of matter and energy
- Include the following stops and transitions (or the equivalent). Transitions involve energy transformations.
- Each phase. Sold, liquid, gas.
- Freezing, melting, evaporating, sublimating, condensing, precipitating, flowing, percolating (into soil),moving through plants-transpiring.
- Appearance in you as a living system: drinking, part of food, blood, cellular water, sweating, breathing vapor, passing urine.
- Appearance in your house (where does your water come from, how is it used, where does it go. Cooking, washing, flushing, drinking.
- Movement on land in India (make reference to your rafting and to what you learned by experimenting with model rivers)
- Travel through plants without being decomposed and reconstituted just transpired.
- Travel through plants to take part in photosynthesis and decomposed. The reborn as a new molecule as a result of photosynthesis and transpired.
- Travel through plant and become part of a fruit.
- Oceans, lakes, deep aquifers where it can rest for a long time.
A really good story will be engaging and will make realistic reference to time, magnitude, and scale. Fictional devices and fantasy should not override reality. Enough detail that the science is not over-simplied; not so much detail that the threat of the story gets lost. Audience (intelligent and knowledgeable 9th grader who is a good reader)
- PS standards from 3 strands
- Developing and using models
- Obtaining, evaluating, and using information
- Systems and system models
- Energy and matter
- M and E in org and eco
- M and E in earth systems
How will you deal with these competing claims?
- “The water coming out of your kitchen tap is four billion years old and might well have been sipped by a Tyrannosaurus rex.” < http://www.thebigthirst.com/the-book/> (2012)
- “The earth’s oceans, ice caps, glaciers, lakes, rivers, soils and atmosphere
- contains about 1.5 billion cubic kilometers of H2O. It has been estimated that all
- the earth’s water is split by plant cells and reconstituted by the biota about every
- 2,000,000 years.” The Oxygen Cycle by Preston Cloud and Araron Gibor (1970)
UPCOMING–Topics Global and Local (Indian) and human impact on the environment–please make suggestions for additional topics you care about
- (Global)*CO2–greenhouse effect–global warming–global climate change
- India(*Invasive species in India—loss of native habitat and biodiversity
- (India) Endangered species. Habitat loss. Trade in endangered species. Animal human conflict.
- (Global)*Elements in an Ipad-Laptop-Cell phone–Rare earths and conflict minerals—environmental costs of technology
- (India)*Air quality in Delhi
- (Global)*The Anthropocene and the 6th great extinction
- (India)*Mining-industrial, economic development, urban sprawl and conservation of nature / habitat / biodiversity in India
- *Agriculture-pesticides-fertilizer-nutrition and health in India
- (Global with local examples)*The concept of ecosystem services—re-evaluating economic policy and theory in light of the environment—other ways to assess the value of the environment—international examples—Indian example.
- (India)Water pollution—degradation and altering watersheds—Yamuna, Ganga, Ken-Betwa link.
- (India) Access to clean water—sewage—pollution—irrigation.
- (Global) New Diseases. Zoonotic diseases.
- (Global) Food security.