8 December Science 8 Finish solar system model and presentation; prepare for written assessment

Finish / polish solar system model and presentation (not only what we know but also how we know)

  • Scaled sizes and distances (how do we know? what techniques have been used to establish distances? Check out Aristarchus: http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses/astro201/aristarchus.htm  and Brahe/Kepler: http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/tycho.htm)
  • Direction of orbits (how do we know?)
  • Direction of spin (how do we know?)
  • Angle of axis of rotation to plane of orbit (orbital plane) (how do we know?)
  • Facts about 8 planets and Pluto (when discovered? how discovered–so small and so far away? what did people notice and what did people look for? how are things like density, atmosphere composition, presence of water, etc. predicted/determined?)
  • Earth’s moon (see questions on phases, times of rising and setting, distance, size, rotation)
  • One moon of Jupiter (see questions on phases, times of rising and setting, distance, size, rotation; who first saw the moons of Jupiter-How?; how are the moons of Jupiter important in navigation?–see video episode on Mapping: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRY2SkMTafc)
  • Think about travel in the solar system. What was your speed if you traveled in your real time in the scaled distance? How does this speed compare to the speed of light?
  • How would you have to travel in your scale to have a realistic speed and time? See:
  • http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/
  • http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/news/factsheet.html

Prepare for written assessment

Answer questions; follow, examine, study links; ask questions from previous blog posts:

Be sure to watch and discuss in writing in your dsn–what is your private universe?:

 

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7 December Science 7 Inspecting balloon behavior, heating air, cooling air, thermodynamics

A once popular song:  Up, up and away in my beautiful, my beautiful balloon by Jimmy Web–performed by many.

Here is the 5th Dimension:       https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5akEgsZSfhg

Today is an altered schedule. Only 60 minutes for the class. The morning classes may try to launch a balloon outside (we will use a balloon built last year–in case it “gets away” or gets damaged).

Observe the launch process closely. Imagine all the things that are happening.

  • Where do you picture exchanges/transformations of energy?
  • What happens when air is heated? Visibly? At the scale of molecules of air (nitrogen N2–78%– and Oxygen O2–20%?
  • What do you think makes the balloon fly?
  • If “hot air rises,” why is it colder in the mountains than in the lowlands?

Let’s make a few measurements to see how the balloon heats up  and how it cools off. These examples will help us begin to appreciate the variety of energy transformations involved in all changes involving matter in the universe (according to modern science).

History of the concepts of Heat and Energy:

Here are some names of important scientists in building the modern theories of heat and temperature. (The field is called thermodynamics.)

  • Joseph Black
  • Thomas Newcomen
  • James Watt
  • Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
  • Sadi Carnot
  • Daniel Bernoulli
  • James Prescott Joule
  • Julius Robert Mayer
  • Hermann von Helmholz
  • Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius
  • William Thompson, Lord Kelvin

Some questions:

  • What are the laws of thermodynamics? Can you state them in straightforward language?
  • What did Joule do during his honeymoon in the Alps? What do you think his bride thought?
  • What is phlogiston?
  • What is caloric?
  • Why was William Thompson, Count Rumford interested in boring cannon? (play on words here–ha ha–boring–get it?)
  • http://www.eoht.info/page/Cannon+boring+experiment
  • What other critical experiences and experiments played a role in the development of the modern concepts of energy and heat?
  • Why is heat thought to be a form of energy?
  • What questions do you have?

A paper by Lord Kelvin

http://zapatopi.net/kelvin/papers/on_the_dynamical_theory_of_heat.html

The history of the concept of energy as it emerged from politics, culture, economics, technology, and science. This is a very interesting episode, The Drive for Power, from a classic series on the history of science, The Ascent of Man by Jacob Bronowski. The world we live in today is a result of events and changes that took place in the time period being discussed. The prospect of climate change caused by human activity, which will affect our lives and the lives of our children, began during the time period discussed and is directly related to “The Drive for Power.” You will need to watch and to listen to this closely. I may take several viewings with time to track down examples and references. Knowing this history is very important to understand how the world has arrived at its present condiiton.

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x206z0e_bbc-ascent-of-man-07-the-drive-for-power_tv

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6 December Science 8 constructing a scale model of the solar system

Hello Voyagers,

Today we will need to leave the classroom all together as soon as possible.

1. Bring your air pollution mask.
2. Gather materials (have a plan for who is to pick them up to bring back to the classroom)
3.We will need to be back by 11:05 in the classroom. Be mindful of the time so that you are not so far away that you cannot make it back.
4. If you are not finished planning, you will still need to come with the group and do your planning on site. Thursday is also available for building the model.
5. Monday will involve a written assessment of the scaling problem and may venture, as well, into aspects of the solar system. Be sure to examine the links from the blog.
6. What does a planet look like when viewed from the earth? What planets have you seen? How can a planet be distinguished from a star when viewed from the earth?
7. One of the main points of this activity is AWE at how small and how far things are in the solar system. And the solar system is totally insignificant when compared to our galaxy and our galaxy is unremarkable in the vastness of the universe.
 8. Very useful solar system calculator:
 http://Here is a solar system calculator with more functions.
Let me know if you have any questions.
Review past blog posts and links on astronomy.
History of Astronomy from an excellent, classic documentary series The Ascent of Man–Jacob Bronowski
Music of the Spheres http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x1zw67e_bbc-ascent-of-man-04-music-of-the-spheres_tv
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5 December Balloon construction continued

See previous blog. Finish balloon. Follow links. Answer questions.

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2016/12/01/1-december-constructing-hot-air-balloons/

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2 December Science 8 Scale in Astronomy

A connection between the study of matter AND astronomy–can you follow the reasoning?: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/barns-are-painted-red-because-of-the-physics-of-dying-stars-58185724/

PLAN TODAY; WALK OUTSIDE NEXT Week as soon as Tuesday.

planetsolarsyswalktrundlesolarsyswalkviewtowardsunsolarwalk

 

 

 

 

Walking to the edge of the scale solar system–with a trundle. Modeling distance and size. What about time? Mercury perhaps? Looking back at the sun, which is represented by a globe, which could be confusing. The group needed a sun on the order of 25 cm or so–they decided a globe was the right size. See the links to the video voyages from past 8th graders below.

Written assessment in class on 12 December.

Model of the Solar system to scale by size and distance

With your group create a video (with commentary) including:

*scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale

*include the sun, all planets and Pluto, the earth’s moon, one of Jupiter’s moons

*written / sketched storyboard

*references to scale factors (This site is very useful: http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/solar_system/ )

*equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model

*directions of orbits; inclinations of the orbits–relative to the earth’s

*interesting facts about the orbits and planets)

Other references on seasons, earth’s orbit, planets, scale at the end of this post.

A few examples of videos from 8th graders in the past. http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2014/12/11/11-dec-science-8-reviewreflection-scale-models-of-solar-system-questions-on-sun-earth-moon-model-seasons/

HOMEWORK / CLASSWORK TO BE DISCUSSED DURING THE REST OF THE SEMESTER.

Moon pictures 21,22,23,24,25,26 November. Just before or just after sunrise.

moondawn21novmoon22novmoon23nov

moon24novmoon25novmoon25nov

 

 

 

The following picture shows the moon on the 26th of November. You can see the brightened eastern sky just before sunrise. Note the position and orientation of the moon.

moon26novsunrise*Explain why you think the moon appears as it does. Consult your own moon observations. Describe the daily and “monthly” motion of the moon. Draw two diagrams of the moon and the sun. In one view show the moon’s phases and the moon’s and sun’s positions from your point of view. In another, show the moon’s phases and the moon’s and sun’s positions from outside the sun-earth-moon system, a “god’s eye” view.

*Get a calendar. Note the date of the autumnal equinox. Count from the day after the autumnal equinox all the days including the day of the spring equinox. This is the number of days from fall to spring. Now start with the day after the spring equinox and count the number of day including the next fall equinox. This is the number of days from spring to fall. What is your interpretation of the result? Draw a “god’s eye” view of the earth’s orbit around the sun–imagine you are looking down upon the earth’s northern hemisphere. Your view is perpendicular to the plane of the orbit (explain what that means). Mark the two equinoxes. Also mark the winter solstice and the summer solstice. How did you decide where to place these important days in the solar calendar? Where does your birthday appear? What stars could you see at midnight on your birthday–can you tell from your diagram?

*Answer the following questions in your digital science notebook: https://www.learner.org/teacherslab/pup/studentquestions.html

*Watch the following video about students’ ideas in astronomy: A Private Universe http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=9

*Write a summary. List your questions. What are your private conceptions?

*What may have confused the girl in the video: http://www.analemma.com/pages/framespage.html

Can you explain what the analemma is and why the sun would appear in such positions during the year?

*Watch the following video and write a summary–

Watch the following videos. Write a summary. Explain the procedure used. List any questions you have. Read about making the video:

https://vimeo.com/blog/post/behind-the-video-to-scale-the-solar-system

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8V_glRW1hA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=khIzr6610cQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKlVxu1SkQkhttp://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.eiu.fusion/the-elements-forged-in-stars/

Other references on seasons, earth’s orbit, planets, scale:

http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/seasons/en/

http://www.crh.noaa.gov/lmk/?n=seasons

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/solarsystem/sun_and_planets

http://janus.astro.umd.edu/SolarSystems/

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/circles/u6l4a.cfm

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/OrbitsHistory/page2.php

Scale:

http://www.scalesolarsystem.66ghz.com/index.html

http://www.noao.edu/education/peppercorn/pcmain.html

http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/solar_system/

http://www.nasa.gov/offices/education/programs/national/summer/education_resources/earthspacescience_grades7-9/ESS_ss-scale-models.html#.UuhnIPm6bu0

http://heasarc.nasa.gov/docs/cosmic/solar_system_info.html (read carefully–distance and size scale are not coordinated in this site)

Game–Sizing up the universe: https://www.brainpop.com/games/sizinguptheuniverse/  user: aesesnew  password: newdelhi

mapschool

Each class will use San Martin Marg for the site of their models. San Martin Marg runs along the west side of the school. In the picture above, note the scale at the bottom right of the image. You can print this image to help you construct your model.

kcsolarmodel

“The exhibition begins with the sun, located at 13th and Baltimore, with the display running south along Baltimore through the Crossroads District, then ending in front of Union Station. The Voyage experience takes approximately thirty minutes to complete, walking at a leisurely pace from the sun to Pluto.”
http://www.kauffman.org/what-we-do/programs/education/voyage-exhibition-a-journey-through-the-solar-system

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1 December Constructing hot air balloons

Be sure to document (photos, sketches, written description) the process of making the tissue-paper hot air balloons in your digital science notebook. (Take measurements.) Look at 7th graders’ ideas about the hot air balloon linked in the class blog post for 29 November.

History of Hot Air Balloons http://www.ballooning.es/uk/hot-air-balloon/history.php

How could you find the density of air (by measurement)?

What is the relationship of the density of air to air pressure?

How might the temperature of air affect its density?

What happens to the motion of the molecules of the different gases that make up the atmosphere when the temperature changes? What does this have to do with energy? Try this simulation: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gas-properties

http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/multimedia/chapter1/lesson2

From Wikipedia entry for Composition of the atmosphere:

Major constituents of dry air, by volume[6]
Gas Volume(A)
Name Formula in ppmv(B) in %
Nitrogen N2 780,840 78.084
Oxygen O2 209,460 20.946
Argon Ar 9,340 0.9340
Carbon dioxide CO2 400 0.04[7]
Neon Ne 18.18 0.001818
Helium He 5.24 0.000524
Methane CH4 1.79 0.000179
Not included in above dry atmosphere:
Water vapor(C) H2O 10–50,000(D) 0.001%–5%(D)
notes:
(A) volume fraction is equal to mole fraction for ideal gas only,
also see volume (thermodynamics)
(B) ppmv: parts per million by volume
(C) Water vapor is about 0.25% by mass over full atmosphere
(D) Water vapor strongly varies locally[4]
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29 November Science 7 Energy Heat preparing for Hot Air Balloons

What I was doing last week: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10207729953470343.1073741908.1338342884&type=1&l=4052bee58a

Captains–to choose groups

Questions about energy?

A pendulum to illustrate energy transformation–Gravitational potential energy transformed to Kinetic energy and back. What is the relationship between work and energy? How does the Conservation of Energy apply.

What is heat? What is temperature?

Two demonstrations.

Observe, take notes, ask questions.

Begin construction of  tissue paper hot-air balloon. During this process, if you have any time when you are waiting, catch up on your digital science notebook, your blog, and reading.

Video clip from famous series: The Search for Solutions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=SKYr7loFk8k

Look at these explanations from 2012 Sci 7. What do you think?

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2012/01/12/science-7-suspected-explanations-hypotheses-about-the-flight-of-the-hot-air-balloon/

Some web links. http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/science-7/web-links/web-links-for-energy-science-7/

You might find these data and ideas interesting / useful.

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2012/01/09/reviewing-the-hot-air-balloons-in-2012-science-7-happy-new-year/

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30 November Science 8 Reflection blog on Chemical reactions; Resuming astronomy

What I was doing last week in case you are interested. Happy to talk if you have any questions: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10207729953470343.1073741908.1338342884&type=1&l=4052bee58a

Send this letter to your parents. Get a signature and have it returned. It may be returned by email. You need this permission in order to conduct the summative assessment for astronomy.

scale-walk-permission

****

On your blog upload a photo of your project if it is a material poster. If it is a document, put a link and make sure it is live and that it works. If it is a video or slide show, include a live and working link. Add a short description of what your project is and why you chose the format you did. Be sure to categorize with Science 8. Explain how each of the learning criteria are met in your final product. Discuss your unanswered and new questions (arising from your investigation).

Learning criteria for success:

  1. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must be included and explained based on acquired data and observations
  2. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must also demonstrate an understanding that substances are composed of different types of atoms combined in specific ways
  3. demonstrate an understanding of the Law of the Conservation of Mass/Matter and how it is represented in your chemical change investigation
  4. your investigation procedure should be documented in your final product

Discuss improvements if you were to repeat the investigation.

What goals do you have for the next units in Science 8? Why?

* * * *

If you are behind on previous blogposts, complete them now.

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Answer the following questions in your digital science notebook: https://www.learner.org/teacherslab/pup/studentquestions.html

Watch the following video about students’ ideas in astronomy: A Private Universe http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=9

Write a summary. List your questions. What are your private conceptions?

Watch the following video and write a summary–

Watch the following videos. Write a summary. Explain the procedure used. List any questions you have. Read about making the video:

https://vimeo.com/blog/post/behind-the-video-to-scale-the-solar-system

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28 November Science 8 Work day on chemical reaction summative “product”

This is individual.

Chemistry Unit Summative Assessment

This assessment will take place over the course of 3-4 class days and your own time. After submitting the final product, you will write a blog post in class.

Brainstorm and planning 16 November; Lab work 18-22 Nov; Due 30 Nov.

General Assessment Guidelines:

  • the investigation must involve or demonstrate a chemical change
  • the investigation portion of the assessment from brainstorming up to the product can be done with a partner or individually
  • the final product must be individual
  • the investigation can be based on previous class activities, but it cannot be identical; the investigation can be a completely new idea
  • safety first, both for you and the environment
  • materials must be available and requested in a timely fashion
  • teacher approval required

Product guidelines:

Students may choose how they present and demonstrate their learning. There will be no traditional paper and pencil test.

Possibilities: science fair poster, video, presentation, report, ibook…be creative!

You will write a blog post outlining how each of the learning criteria are met in your final product. This will be done after submission in class.

Learning criteria for success:

  1. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must be included and explained based on acquired data and observations
  2. chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must also demonstrate an understanding that substances are composed of different types of atoms combined in specific ways
  3. demonstrate an understanding of the Law of the Conservation of Mass/Matter and how it is represented in your chemical change investigation
  4. your investigation procedure should be documented in your final product
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18 November Science 8 Day 1 investigation of chemical reactions for assessment

Carefully review the previous blogpost from 16 November introducing the project. <http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2016/11/16/16-november-science-8-proposing-an-investigation-summative-project/>

Show written copy of proposal. Pay careful attention to safety and to learning criteria.

SAFETY FIRST. EYE PROTECTION FOR EVERYONE. KNOW THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF THE REACTION YOU ARE INVESTIGATING.

Before initiating any reaction, you must show your set-up to Dr. F.

Work neatly and carefully. Keep all work areas and dispensing areas clean, neat, and orderly.

NO OFF-TASK, DISTRACTING, DANGEROUS BEHAVIOR. See me if you are not sure what this means.

Keep careful, complete, accurate notes of your procedures, observations, measurements. Keep a record of your thoughts, reflections, and questions. These records will be extremely helpful when analyzing and reporting your findings.

Ask for help if you need it.

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