11 December Science 7 Summative assessment Hot Air Balloon investigation–Personal Inquiry Project

Read the directions carefully.

Do not talk.

Use lined paper. On each page you use, put your full name and period. Your writing should be clear, dark, and not too small. Please skip a line in between each line of writing. You may use the back of the paper. If you want to change something, mark through the text with a single line. DO NOT ERASE.

Answer question #1.

Answer one question from the choices: 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

Answer all parts of the question. Answer thoroughly. Offer examples that make your ideas clear. Use sketches. It is very important that you make your answers complete, clear, specific, and thoughtful.

You may refer to your own notes–from your paper notebook and/or from your Digital Science Notebook. You may not consult any other student. You may not consult any other source. Ipad must remain on the table (not your lap).

If you have a question, raise your hand and I will come to you.

You will have the entire period if you need the time. There will be no extra time after that.

  1. Energy is the capacity to do work. Work occurs whenever a force is applied to a mass through some distance. One form of energy can be transformed into another form. The total energy in a closed system is conserved. Describe as many energy transformations as you can (that are associated with the launch and flight of a hot air balloon–like one we have flown). What forces are applied to what masses? Be sure to discuss how heat energy is involved? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  2. Describe the “best” launch and flight of your balloon. Define “best.” Describe features of your balloon. You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  3. Describe the way the surface temperature of the hot air balloon changes during the operation of the heat gun and during the flight and landing. What do you think happens to the air during each phase? If you could see the molecules of air during the heating, flying and landing, how do you think they would look? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  4. What was your “first” explanation of why the balloon “flies?” What was a different explanation offered in your class for why the balloon “flies?” You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  5. What experiment/test was performed to test your explanation of why the balloon flies? What were the results? What conclusions? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  6. What experiment/test was performed to test a different explanation? What were the results? What were the conclusions? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.

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When you finish, read the following and think about what you might choose for a “Personal Inquiry Project” (PIP).

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The Personal Inquiry Project

During the coming semester, you will need to conduct what we shall call a Personal Inquiry Project.

There are only a few requirements:

  • The project should be something that interests you and motivates you very much.
  • The project should be related to some idea(s) and/or some practice(s) that are part of Science 7 (Motion; Energy; Growth-Development-Reproduction / Biodiversity; Natural Selection-Adaptation / Evolution). You should be able to provide rationale for the connection of your PIP to the Science 7 curriculum.
  • The PIP should involve significant firsthand experience and original thought/work.
  • The PIP will be presented to the school community (including parents) at the end of the year. Thus, it will need certain components. The details of the presentation / publication of projects will be determined through collaborative discussion with each student. The expectation is that the quality of the presentation / publication will be high.
  • A written description/explanation of the project will be required.
  • A written reflection including specified points will be required.
  • There is the possibility that the PIP will be included in Power School (especially regarding scientific practices as well as cross-cutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas).
  • Although some time will be provided during class, most of the time for the research and composition will come outside of class. There will be checkpoints along the way.
  • A proposal is made that identifies: 
    • Challenging Problem or Question
    • Key Knowledge, Understanding, and Success Skills 
    • Sources of personal interest and motivation
    • Clear connections to scientific concepts, ideas, practices from the Science 7 curriculum
    • A timeframe

There are a multitude of possibilities (each would need to be documented in a thorough and appropriate way):

  • An original experimental research project.
  • An original naturalistic field study research project.
  • Original creative non-fiction based on firsthand observations and experiences.
  • Original poetic writing based on firsthand observations and experiences.
  • Original art based on firsthand observations and experiences.
  • Original photography based on firsthand observations and experiences.
  • An original collection / display / exhibit like something curated for a museum.
  • A service project (there are many possibilities here from working with children to enhancing the environment to advocacy for some action).
  • An original invention, construction, or engineering investigation.
  • An original project that investigates cultural aspects of a science related topic (ethnobotany / ethnobiology possibilities are rich in India; traditional motion toys collected, built, performance investigated).
  • An original project that investigates practices that people might not immediately associate with science (food and cooking, for example).
  • An idea that you propose and for which you provide a convincing rationale.

Some examples–there are so many possibilities:

  • Year-long creative writing in science by two 7th graders
  • todrift
  • Art-Science projects in Science 7 at AES
  • scienceart
  • Service project for the environment and the visually impaired by Singapore American School students
  • legacyfrazier

Sustained creative writing in science by two middle schoolers

  •             Motion is when an object is moving. It doesn’t necessarily have to be going somewhere. When an object in motion hits another object it results in impact. The size of impact depends on the size of the objects colliding. Without motion, the universe wouldn’t be here. Nothing could ever happen without motion.
  •             To measure the motion of an object, I think you need the distance of travel, time of travel, velocity, force/momentum, and a relative point. You need a relative point because if an object is just moving through space, there is no point for it to move closer or farther from. If an object is just moving through nothing (open space), where it ends up later will be exactly where it ends up later will be exactly like where it started. So basically it hasn’t moved at all.
  •             Einstein’s theory of relativity has much to do with motion. Can time stand still if you move away from a clock/time at the speed of light? The way this works is the time travels from the clock to your eyes at the speed of light. So if you move away from the light which carries the time to you…wouldn’t time stand still? If this true, would it be possible to go back in time if you travel faster than the speed of light? The only way to find out is to try it and experiment. I doubt these experiments with time travel will occur very soon. Humans are far from travel even close to the speed of light.
  •             A centerfielder judging a fly ball is my specialty. My favorite sport is baseball and I know pretty well how players judge the ball. Seventy-five percent of judging is seeing the acceleration of the ball off the bat and determining if it is low or high ball. A hard, low ball would reach it’s highest point in about one second. It is quite amazing how fast the ball can accelerate into the air. I think in races, acceleration is a key part to winning. It’s a key part in motion!

A Tennis Ball in Space vs. A Tennis Ball on Earth

I wrote this for our unit on motion and how gravity affects our everyday life. (Note: The first line is a tennis ball in space, the second line is a tennis ball on Earth, the third line is a tennis ball in space, the fourth line is a tennis ball on Earth, etc.)

  • Gliding to be free to drift wherever you please,
  • Gliding in a designated path.
  • Tracing your thoughts,
  • Tracing the thoughts of the arm that directed you.
  • Knowing you will always drift and will never end,
  • Knowing you will eventually hit the ground with a thud ending all movement.
  • With the whole universe to explore,
  • With the whole planet to explore but not by your choices.
  • Sensing the danger of a black hole,
  • Sensing the danger of a playful puppy.
  • Loneliness of being the only tennis ball in space,
  • Loneliness of being the only thing flying.
  • Being able to not feel anything for there is nothing near you,
  • Being able to feel people’s hands and anything that touches you.
  • Many other items that feels as strange as you,
  • Many other tennis balls.
  • Random and spontaneous.
  • Precise and assured.
  • Free.

The Personal Inquiry Project: Inquire, Build, Create, Invent, Do, Serve

Project Based Learning is a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging and complex question, problem, or challenge. Essential Project Design Elements include:

  • Key Knowledge, Understanding, and Success Skills – The project is focused on student learning goals, including standards-based content and skills such as critical thinking/problem solving, collaboration, and self-management.
  • Challenging Problem or Question– The project is framed by a meaningful problem to solve or a question to answer, at the appropriate level of challenge.
  • Sustained Inquiry– Students engage in a rigorous, extended process of asking questions, finding resources, and applying information.
  • Authenticity– The project features real-world context, tasks and tools, quality standards, or impact – or speaks to students’ personal concerns, interests, and issues in their lives.
  • Student Voice & Choice– Students make some decisions about the project, including how they work and what they create.
  • Reflection– Students and teachers reflect on learning, the effectiveness of their inquiry and project activities, the quality of student work, obstacles and how to overcome them.
  • Critique & Revision– Students give, receive, and use feedback to improve their process and products.
  • Public Product Students make their project work public by explaining, displaying and/or presenting it to people beyond the classroom.

The project involves:

  • Significant, original, first-hand experience. (original/first-hand research, construction, creative efforts, action, service) (The firsthand experiential aspect is essential. Primarily conducting second-hand research does not address the criteria for this project.)
  • Sustained Inquiry (timeline proposed and followed)
  • A Level of commitment that is enacted
  • Communication with parents on the student’s level of commitment and level of engagement and effort
  • Support of parents

The project is:

  • Authentic
  • Based on Student’s Voice & Choice

The project includes:

  • Genuine, Deep, Insightful, Coherent Reflection

Students engage in:

  • Critique & Revision
  • On-going communication with teacher, peers, parents on the progress of the project

The project results in

  • A Public Product to be determined through the proposal and project processes

ArtScience (see this link: artscience1415)

You should be able to explain clearly what your creation has to do with our study of motion (position, time, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, Newton’s Laws of Motion, inertia, etc.). (A POOR connection would be to say something like, “We made a painting and it has to do with motion because we had to move the paintbrush.”)

Consider this question as a way to relate originality/creativity in art and discovering/inventin in science: How does your work show both you AND the viewer something that is not already known?

See this article: scienceart

Video, pictures, and reflection on one project from the past:

http://18srajesh.18blogs.aes.ac.in/grade-7/science/portfolio/swining-art-motion-project/and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tZQ4014SFgM

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Check out this science-art picture from the AES website: https://www.facebook.com/AmericanEmbassySchoolNewDelhi/photos/a.384454041722974.1073741828.337997143035331/397055197129525/?type=1 

Walking camel

walkingcamel

Clacker

clacker

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8 December Science 8 Working on Ebooks about Scale and Proportion in the Solar System

Today is available to work on your ebook. I would love to see what progress you are making–please show me.

This is an interesting website: 

Below is a little story about astronomy and how one student reacted.

I was a graduate student in science education at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)  from 1978-1983 and again from 1994-1995 when I finished my Ph.D. During my first two years I was a graduate teaching assistant in a very large astronomy course designed for non-science majors. The course was essentially a year-long history of physical science and astronomy from the ancient Greeks through modern Physics and Cosmology (Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, Big Bang, etc.). The professors who gave lectures for the course were Dr. Sidney Rosen (he was a science educator and author) <https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/8620.Sidney_Rosen> and Dr. Larry Smarr (a major figure in the development of the internet)  <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larry_Smarr> <https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/07/the-measured-man/309018/>.

My master’s thesis was completed in 1981:

An examination of the conceptual structures three nonscience majors use in their encounters with mathematics and science

The study was based on interviews with 3 university students who wanted help with the course. In exchange for the tutoring, these students let me interview them and record our conversations.

As we were working on the solar system scale model in Science 8 these past few meetings, I remembered one of the students I had interviewed back in Illinois. He had identified himself as someone who had difficulty with mathematics and science. He was intelligent and articulate and agreed to serve as a subject in my series of case studies. Notice the emotional memories he has from childhood and adolescence when thinking about astronomy. What do you think of his recollection?

(I = interviewer; E = Edward, a pseudonym.)

The interview picks up where Edward is talking about his interpretation from one of the course lectures earlier in the week. He had mentioned a particular response to the idea of infinity and randomness.

I:  Tell me what you said you used to think about when you were younger. Was it infinity, randomness?

E: I had a time with that; I really did. I used to think about things when I was younger, between eight and ten I guess, and it lasted a couple of years. It would hit me any time. That’s the thing. I could be anywhere and I’d start thinking about it, and I’d get really upset. It would be this kind of thing. I’d be thinking about dying, everybody dying. First of all, when I was younger, I’d always think I was the one that wasn’t going to die. Then I realized how everybody does die and I’d think about everything being infinite. When I was younger, I was very interested in astronomy and I had a telescope. I used to go out and log the stars every night with my father. I used to look at it. Everything was so vast and infinite and I was just this little pea. When I was pretty young, I used to think about things like that, and then it would start getting me really scared, and I’m going to die and decay and end up as nothing, and I’m never going to think again. It used to frighten me to death; it used to frighten me terribly, sleepless nights and everything.

I: Did you have a word for infinity?

E: I used to think about time and the universe; I knew those words. I couldn’t figure out about time, when it began and when it will end. If everything’s infinite, then there’s no way. I used to try to placate myself by saying I’ll be buried under a tree, and I’ll become a tree, fertilizer for a tree. I don’t know; I used to—I never wanted just not to be. It used to frighten me terribly; I had terrible bouts with it. After talking with people through the years I realize I’m not the only one who’s ever had these things, but I had it bad. A lot of it came from my mother who’s a very religious woman. She used to be always talking about God and telling me everything’s going to be O.K., but I never used to believe that ever, really. I used to go to church all the time, but I never really believed it. The fact is that it was always a topic of discussion because whenever you talk about God, you talk about people’s beliefs to make them feel better about dying. It used to come up in church. It used to scare me; it used to scare me terribly. I finally got over it.

I: Do you remember why you mentioned this after class the other day?

E: We were talking about entropy and infinity. I know somewhere deep down there there’s still that creepy feeling about things like that. I think that had something to do with my shunning the study of astronomy. When I was younger, my friend Donald and I were really interested and we even had a little astronomy club. We would go out at night, and I think that kind of pushed me away because when I used to look at everything, everything was so big and I was just a nothing compared to everything else. It really used to frighten me and I used to cry to my mother like little kids do.

I: It seems a strong feeling in you now. Does it or how does it manifest itself in your life now: Beyond the recollections, are you actively influenced by it now?

E: I think it influences me in a negative sense in that when I recall what it used to do to me when I should be concentrating on the concepts. In a class like this where all the concepts like this are constantly being brought to where you have to think consciously about them, maybe I say, “I don’t want to think about this because it used to scare me so much.” Like I can think about atomic structure all day long, but when we were talking about relativity and things like that and the end of the universe . . . that’s why I had so much trouble even when we were reading the Bertrand Russell book (The ABC of Relativity), which is a basic kind of book. I was scared in that book; I know I was. I didn’t think about it that I was scared, but maybe it was a subconscious thing.

I: What form does infinity have in your thoughts?

E: There’s this whole series I go through in my head. Time is forever and forever is just—feels like empty space, black and endless. I get this feeling of endlessness and emptiness. I see blackness; it’s ink black. I don’t think you can imagine nothing, but it’s about as close to nothing as you can get. It’s that whole very frightening concept of infinity. I used to go through the whole digression of how time must go on when I die and I’m just a little nothing. (Pp. 57-59)

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7 December Science 7 Experiments with Hot Air Balloons

Today

  1. Find the mass of your balloon (grams). Find the weight (Newtons).
  2. Estimate the volume of your balloon (cubic centimeters, liters).
  3. What is the height of the ceiling in the HOP?
  4. How much work is done on your balloon as it lifts from the floor to the ceiling? (Remember work is force x distance. The force of lifting the balloon up must equal the force pulling the balloon down–gravity–weight?)
  5. What are all the energy transformations–remember that any form of energy involves the capacity to do work?
  6. How could you determine the density of air at room temperature?
  7. What is your explanation for why the balloon flies?
  8. How could your idea be tested?
  9. Take material and equipment to the gym.
  10. 2 experiments from Dr. F. What do you think?
  11. Each group propose an experiment and try.

Everyone focuses. Everyone helps. No distracting or off-task behavior.

If you need something to do while waiting:

  1. Get your digital science notebook complete and up to date.
  2. Examine links and references from previous blogposts on energy and hot air balloons.
  3. Find out more about the history of ballooning and science: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/short-history-of-ballooning.html
  4. Prepare for in-class writing summative assessment for Tuesday. See previous blog for questions.
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6 December Science 8 Composing eBook / Video about Solar System and Model

  • Today and Friday are workdays.
  • If you need more time outside, consult with Dr. F.
  • Let Dr. F know whether you are making a video or eBook and clarify that you understand the due date.

APPROACHES to your composition:

  • Consider your audience–who do you want to read your book or see your video?
  • Creative, Interesting, Artistic, Compelling, Awe-filled, Visual–photos, video clips, drawings, paintings, sketches, diagrams, etc.
  • Please go beyond a dull encyclopedic regurgitation of facts
  • A few possible ideas: A personal journey, A travel story, “The incredible shrinking universe,” A story of how we know

CHECKLIST of information to include–woven through the composition

  • Sizes and distances–real and scaled.
  • How many times has the model shrunk from the real solar system? What is the scale factor?
  • Direction and time of orbits for each object (except the sun). Remember you must establish a frame of reference (there is no absolute up or down in space–we must always say, “with respect to” when describing directions or orientations). Do any orbits cross? What did Kepler figure out about orbits–what is the relationship of distance from the sun and time for one revolution?
  • Spin and orientation of spin (what is the rotation of the objects like–direction and time)
  • How do we (humans–astronomers) know about the direction and spin of the objects? Can you explain the evidence and the argument?
  • Composition of objects? Again, how do we know? (Since light is the main source of information–what is it that light can reveal about composition? Hint: What is the story of the origin of the name of element 2–Helium?)
  • Structure of each object and processes: Does Venus have an atmosphere? Does Mars have Mars–quakes? Are there volcanoes on any of the planets? Hurricanes or cyclones? Again, how do we know?
  • Other “fun facts”
  • What is the place of the solar system in our galaxy and the galaxy in our cluster of galaxies and the cluster in the universe?

REFLECTIONS to weave into your composition:

  • Wonder and amazement at the vastness of the solar system!
  • Perspective on the importance of humans with respect to our place–on the one had our lives are unimaginably short considering time in the universe, our planet is minor in an unremarkable solar system–on the other–Astronomer Carl Sagan (https://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/whos_who_level2/sagan.html ) said something like “We are the way the universe knows itself”–riddle–how does consciousness arise from the matter that is us–matter that was created in the processes of stars. See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6yLGeviU8FM
  • The double-edge sword of using models. Models can clarify but they can also confuse. What is your experience with models of the solar system and other systems in the universe? Consider the stories from the video A Private Universe: https://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=9
  • The prospect of travel in the solar system and beyond
  • The prospect of life beyond the earth (SETI– https://www.seti.org/ )
  • The earth is the only home we’ve got–what has happened and is happening due to human activity?
  • What would you tell an extra terrestrial intelligence about our earth? (https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/golden-record/)
  • How does our study of matter relate to what happens in the solar system, on other planets, in stars, in the universe?
  • Other ideas that have come to you–watching the moon and stars, building the model, conducting the research

 

 

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5 Dec Science 7–finish balloons and fly them

See previous blogs. Review videos, pictures, links, questions.

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2017/12/01/1-dec-sci-7-continue-hot-air-balloon-construction/

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2017/11/29/29-november-science-7-energy-and-hot-air-balloons-leading-to-summative-project/

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6 December Science 8 Work on Ebook / Video about Solar System and Scale Model

See this video: Powers of Ten:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fKBhvDjuy0

Here’s an idea for a travel through our solar system ebook (think of the pictures you would need from today’s activity)

Title: A trip through our solar system imagined in New Delhi

  • Pictures of map and locations
  • Picture of model objects
  • Pictures of the street scenes at the location of the objects
  • Interspersed with information about each object, etc.

For your reflection: What are some of the issues involved with using models to explain, predict, understand?

Consider how you might weave creative / reflective elements through your e-book or video.

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 17-18 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

Groups prepare and construct the model. Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.
  2. Produce in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard.
  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.
  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale.
  5. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) the directions and inclinations of orbits. (Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.)
8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models
8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

Some questions from previous assessments–things to consider including in your ebook or video:

  • At around 16 km / s, it took the New Horizons spacecraft to travel from earth to Pluto a little over 9 years. How long did it take you to travel from earth to Pluto in your model? How different was your speed from the New Horizon’s? At what speed would you have to walk in the model to mimic New Horizon’s actual speed?
  • Identify the aspects of your model that correspond to “reality.” Where does your model “break” with reality?
  • Approximately how many times has your model “shrunk” from the actual size of the solar system?
  • What surprised you most about the scaling distance and size in the solar system by the same factor? Why?
  • The distance of planets from the sun is most clearly related to
  1. a) the time for one revolution
  2. b) the size of the planet
  3. c) the composition of the planets’ atmospheres
  4. d) the time for one rotation
  • Which of the following is/arenot evidence to support an elliptical orbit of the earth around the sun
  1. a) the number of days from the spring equinox to the fall equinox is greater than from the fall equinox to the spring equinox
  2. b) the sun’s apparent diameter is slightly smaller in the summer than in the winter
  3. c) the sun is never directly overhead outside of the tropics
  4. d) the practice of daylight savings time—the practice of moving clocks ahead in the spring and back in the fall
  • Which of the following is not true.
  • All planets in our solar system:
  1. a)  orbit in nearly the same plane
  2. b) orbit in the same direction
  3. c) have moons
  4. d) travel faster when they are closer to the sun
  • The direction of the orbits of planets in star-planet systems
  1. a) is the same throughout the universe
  2. b) is determined by the specific circumstances of the formation of each system
  3. c) is always the same as the direction of rotation
  4. d) cannot be determined
  •  Which of the following is/are not true
  1. a) With gravitational attraction the sun pulls on the planets but the planets do not pull on the sun
  2. b) Gravity is a force where every mass is attracted to every other mass
  3. c) Gravitational force gets weaker as the distance increases between masses
  4. d) Gravitational force depends on the size of the masses
  • What is the best explanation for why we can see Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn without a telescope but cannot see Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
  1. a) The respective distances from the earth
  2. b) The size of the planets
  3. c) The speed of revolution
  4. d) The amount of light produced by each planet
  • Use your project chart on the size and distances of the planets to answer the following questions. The sun’s actual diameter is ~1,392,000km. If in a scaled model, we make the sun’s diameter 200mm, what would be the scale diameter of one planet?
  • Venus 1.7
  • Earth 1.8
  • Mars .9
  • Saturn 16.7
  • Uranus 6.7
  • Neptune 6.5
  • Pluto  .3
  • Use your project chart on the size and distances of the planets to answer the following questions. If in a scaled model of our solar system, we set the distance scale as 1m = 10 million km, calculate the scaled distance between two of the following planets and the sun.
  • Mercury 58,000,000 5.8
  • Earth 150,000,000 15
  • Jupiter 779,000,000 77.9
  • Pluto 5,913,000,000 591.3
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4 Dec Science 8 Building the Scale Model of the Solar System

Today build your scale model of the solar system.

(Don’t forget the moon–smile: https://www.space.com/38969-supermoon-trilogy-kicks-off-dec-3.html  )

  • Follow guidelines for safety. Pick up all pieces of your model when you are finished.
  • Work collaboratively, efficiently, and safely.
  • Measure carefully and thoughtfully. Use equipment properly.
  • Take photos and/or videos of any aspect you need. If you need narration, consider adding it later as the background noise outside may cause interference.

Here’s an idea for a travel through our solar system ebook (think of the pictures you would need from today’s activity)

Title: A trip through our solar system imagined in New Delhi

  • Pictures of map and locations
  • Picture of model objects
  • Pictures of the street scenes at the location of the objects
  • Interspersed with information about each object, etc.

For your reflection: What are some of the issues involved with using models to explain, predict, understand?

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 17-18 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

Groups prepare and construct the model. Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.
  2. Produce in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard.
  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.
  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale.
  5. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) the directions and inclinations of orbits. (Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.)
8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models
8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

Some questions from previous assessments–things to consider including in your ebook or video:

  • At around 16 km / s, it took the New Horizons spacecraft to travel from earth to Pluto a little over 9 years. How long did it take you to travel from earth to Pluto in your model? How different was your speed from the New Horizon’s? At what speed would you have to walk in the model to mimic New Horizon’s actual speed? 
  • Identify the aspects of your model that correspond to “reality.” Where does your model “break” with reality?
  • Approximately how many times has your model “shrunk” from the actual size of the solar system?
  • What surprised you most about the scaling distance and size in the solar system by the same factor? Why?
  • The distance of planets from the sun is most clearly related to
  1. a) the time for one revolution
  2. b) the size of the planet
  3. c) the composition of the planets’ atmospheres
  4. d) the time for one rotation
  • Which of the following is/arenot evidence to support an elliptical orbit of the earth around the sun
  1. a) the number of days from the spring equinox to the fall equinox is greater than from the fall equinox to the spring equinox
  2. b) the sun’s apparent diameter is slightly smaller in the summer than in the winter
  3. c) the sun is never directly overhead outside of the tropics
  4. d) the practice of daylight savings time—the practice of moving clocks ahead in the spring and back in the fall 
  • Which of the following is not true.
  • All planets in our solar system:
  1. a)  orbit in nearly the same plane
  2. b) orbit in the same direction
  3. c) have moons 
  4. d) travel faster when they are closer to the sun
  • The direction of the orbits of planets in star-planet systems
  1. a) is the same throughout the universe
  2. b) is determined by the specific circumstances of the formation of each system
  3. c) is always the same as the direction of rotation
  4. d) cannot be determined
  •  Which of the following is/are not true
  1. a) With gravitational attraction the sun pulls on the planets but the planets do not pull on the sun
  2. b) Gravity is a force where every mass is attracted to every other mass
  3. c) Gravitational force gets weaker as the distance increases between masses
  4. d) Gravitational force depends on the size of the masses
  • What is the best explanation for why we can see Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn without a telescope but cannot see Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
  1. a) The respective distances from the earth
  2. b) The size of the planets
  3. c) The speed of revolution
  4. d) The amount of light produced by each planet
  • Use your project chart on the size and distances of the planets to answer the following questions. The sun’s actual diameter is ~1,392,000km. If in a scaled model, we make the sun’s diameter 200mm, what would be the scale diameter of one planet?
  • Venus 1.7
  • Earth 1.8
  • Mars .9
  • Saturn 16.7
  • Uranus 6.7
  • Neptune 6.5
  • Pluto  .3
  • Use your project chart on the size and distances of the planets to answer the following questions. If in a scaled model of our solar system, we set the distance scale as 1m = 10 million km, calculate the scaled distance between two of the following planets and the sun.
  • Mercury 58,000,000 5.8
  • Earth 150,000,000 15
  • Jupiter 779,000,000 77.9
  • Pluto 5,913,000,000 591.3
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1 Dec Sci 7 — Continue hot air balloon construction

Each group has a “captain” who will first receive instructions and will then deliver instructions to the respective group.

We should be able to finish most balloons today so that flights can begin in the next class–that is, if groups work efficiently.

Think of what you will observe. Think of what could be happening when we heat the air inside the balloon. (We will use devices called “heat guns” that are like super-charged hair dryers.)

Your summative will involve in class writing after we have spent a class or two observing flights, proposing explanations, examining relationships (how does heating time relate to the time it takes to reach a certain height, for example), testing explanations, exploring the parameters of performance (how fast, how far, how strong, etc).

Here are the questions for our Energy summative. Everyone will answer #1 and everyone will choose 1 more to answer from choices #2, #3, #4, #5, and #6.

  1. Energy is the capacity to do work. Work occurs whenever a force is applied to a mass through some distance. One form of energy can be transformed into another form. The total energy in a closed system is conserved. Describe as many energy transformations as you can (that are associated with the launch and flight of a hot air balloon–like one we have flown). What forces are applied to what masses? Be sure to discuss how heat energy is involved? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  2. Describe the “best” launch and flight of your balloon. Define “best.” Describe features of your balloon. You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  3. Describe the way the surface temperature of the hot air balloon changes during the operation of the heat gun and during the flight and landing. What do you think happens to the air during each phase? If you could see the molecules of air during the heating, flying and landing, how do you think they would look? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  4. What was your “first” explanation of why the balloon “flies?” What was a different explanation offered in your class for why the balloon “flies?” You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  5. What experiment/test was performed to test your explanation of why the balloon flies? What were the results? What conclusions? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.
  6. What experiment/test was performed to test a different explanation? What were the results? What were the conclusions? You may include labeled diagrams/sketches.

A video clip of a launch: https://drive.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/file/d/1RzPpRbWxpCUi5CElcH4I9ayY_ZFys-WM/view?usp=sharing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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30 November Science 8 Scaling the solar system

Today:

Form groups.

Groups will collaboratively research and plan a scale model of the solar system where the same factor is used for the distances and the sizes. Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Earth’s Moon, Mars, Jupiter, One of Jupiter’s Moons, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.

Research

Plan

  • Map out model
  • Construct or select objects to represent sun, planets, moons, etc.
  • Create/sketch/write storyboards–Plan video and/or photos
  • Write scripts/commentary
  • Choose format

You will have the next class to construct your model and to video / photograph / record. (4 December). Be sure to bring your air pollution mask. Be prepared for cool temperatures. Wear shoes for walking.

You will have 6 and 8 December to produce your individual project. Video projects are due  (you must check with me on how you will turn your project in) on 8 December by 9:00 pm. Ebook projects are due on 11 December by 4:00 pm. 

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 17-18 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

Groups prepare and construct the model. Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.
  2. Produce in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard.
  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.
  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale.
  5. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) the directions and inclinations of orbits. (Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.)
8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models
8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
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29 November Science 7 Energy and Hot Air Balloons (leading to summative project)

Captains–to choose groups

Questions about energy?

A pendulum to illustrate energy transformation–Gravitational potential energy transformed to Kinetic energy and back. What is the relationship between work and energy? How does the Conservation of Energy apply.

What is heat? What is temperature?

Three energy problems (complete these in your digital science notebook and be ready to share/submit in the next two weeks):

  1. Climbing the stairs. Calculate the work you do to climb the outside stairs from the ground level (HOP) to the third floor. Calculate the food you need to eat (kind and amount) to give you the energy to climb the stairs. Show your work.
  2. Energy toy 1. See video. Explain using concepts and quantities from our study of motion and energy.
  3. Energy toy 2. See video. Explain using concepts and quantities from our study of motion and energy.

View the wonderful video episode about energy CHANGE from The Ring of Truth. Follow closely the example of the cyclists in the Tour de France. How does the author use the unit of a “jelly donut” to examine ideas of energy–like the Conservation of Energy? Notice that the video explores and important cross-cutting concept in science: Stability and Change.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nk8CQNThbc0

Begin construction of  tissue paper hot-air balloon. During this process, if you have any time when you are waiting, catch up on your digital science notebook, your blog, and reading.

Video clip from famous series: The Search for Solutions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=SKYr7loFk8k

Look at these explanations from 2012 Sci 7. What do you think?

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2012/01/12/science-7-suspected-explanations-hypotheses-about-the-flight-of-the-hot-air-balloon/

Some web links. http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/science-7/web-links/web-links-for-energy-science-7/

You might find these data and ideas interesting / useful.

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2012/01/09/reviewing-the-hot-air-balloons-in-2012-science-7-happy-new-year/

 Be sure to document (photos, sketches, written description) the process of making the tissue-paper hot air balloons in your digital science notebook. (Take measurements.) Look at 7th graders’ ideas about the hot air balloon linked in the class blog post for 29 November.History of Hot Air Balloons http://www.ballooning.es/uk/hot-air-balloon/history.php

How could you find the density of air (by measurement)?

What is the relationship of the density of air to air pressure?

How might the temperature of air affect its density?

What happens to the motion of the molecules of the different gases that make up the atmosphere when the temperature changes? What does this have to do with energy? Try this simulation: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gas-properties

http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/multimedia/chapter1/lesson2

From Wikipedia entry for Composition of the atmosphere:

Major constituents of dry air, by volume[6]
Gas Volume(A)
Name Formula in ppmv(B) in %
Nitrogen N2 780,840 78.084
Oxygen O2 209,460 20.946
Argon Ar 9,340 0.9340
Carbon dioxide CO2 400 0.04[7]
Neon Ne 18.18 0.001818
Helium He 5.24 0.000524
Methane CH4 1.79 0.000179
Not included in above dry atmosphere:
Water vapor(C) H2O 10–50,000(D) 0.001%–5%(D)
notes:
(A) volume fraction is equal to mole fraction for ideal gas only,
also see volume (thermodynamics)
(B) ppmv: parts per million by volume
(C) Water vapor is about 0.25% by mass over full atmosphere
(D) Water vapor strongly varies locally[4]
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