13 October Science 8 Analyzing data, Completing experiments, Testing gases, The Conservation of Mass, Atoms-Molecules-Chemical Reactions

Put the pictures of the moon from the 11th, the 12th, and today the 13th together to see if you are any closer to figuring out the pattern of the phases and the times of rising and setting.

11 October, 2017 New Delhi 5:40 am (facing west)
12 October, 2017 New Delhi 5:40 am (facing west)

13 October 2017 New Delhi 5:10 am (facing east)

Find the mass of the two steel wool bottles and enter the data if you have not done so.

Complete the vinegar and baking soda reaction in a bottle if you have not done so. Enter the data in the class spreadsheet.

Begin working on question 1 below.

  1. Examine the class data from the reactions. Be sure you have entered your results. Pick out the data that surprise you the most. Make a histogram of the relevant findings (like the change in mass). Follow good graphing guidelines. Explain in sentences what surprises you about the findings. Discuss what you expected before you conducted the experiments and before you looked at the class data. How do you explain the data? How do you explain the reaction? What do you think happens with the atoms and molecules?
  2. What can you find out about The Conservation of Mass? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1b1S31xGFc How do the results in the video clip compare to our class results? What are your ideas?
  3. We will extract and test the gas from both experiments with the steel wool. You will see a gas-testing technique and will learn a property of the gas that has remained in the bottle and/or has been produced by the reaction. It will be important to contrast the gas(es) in the bottles with air. Think about the importance of establishing a comparison case–called a control.
  4. We will generate the gas from the vinegar and baking soda reaction, capture it in an inverted cylinder filled with water and inverted test-tubes, and test the gas.
  5. We will, if time, demonstrate with a molecular model the reaction of vinegar (5% acetic acid) and baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate). See information and photographs below.

With reference to the reaction of vinegar and baking soda:

  • What do you think happens to the vinegar?
  • What do you think happens to the baking soda?
  • What do you think the gas might be?
  • Where do you think the gas came from–the vinegar, the baking soda, both?
  • How could you find out by experimentation?
  • Based on your previous experiments what mass of gas can be released from 2 grams of baking soda and 60 ml of vinegar? Think of a workable procedure.
  • What volume of gas can be released from 1 gram of baking soda and 30 ml of vinegar? Think of a workable procedure.
  • What are the properties of the gas? Think of a workable procedure to collect and test the gas.
  • What proportions of vinegar and baking soda are needed for a complete reaction–where no baking soda is left over and no vinegar is left over? What are the tests to know if you have reached a complete reaction? Think of a workable procedure.
  • What remains in the solution after the reaction is completed? Think of a workable procedure.
  • Other questions–pose some.
  • SOME NOTES ON THE VINEGAR AND BAKING SODA REACTION
  • Ingredients before the reaction (reactants)
  • Baking soda (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate) + Vinegar (5% acetic acid in water) —>
  • Some products that are not Baking soda and vinegar
  • What are these products?
  • A gas–what might the gas be? what are its properties? How much gas is produced?? How much volume? Is the gas made from the baking soda only, from the vinegar only, or does each compound contribute something that then comes together to make the gas?
  • A liquid (water? something dissolved in the water? more than one thing dissolved in the water?
  • What are the relative amounts of baking soda and vinegar that will completely react with each other so that no baking soda is left AND no vinegar is left.

The simplest set of changes to get from vinegar and baking soda to the reaction products.

NaHCO3 + CH3COOH —-> CO2 + H2O + CH3COONa
(this is a description of the overall reaction which occurs in several steps)

Model of reaction between vinegar and baking soda (acetic acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate). Observe, replicate, sketch, photograph, animate.startreactvbs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

midreactvbs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

endreactvbs

 

 

Review this from the beginning of the year: Fundamental-questions-about-matter

There is a very interesting project from MIT which uses LEGOS to represent atoms and molecules. Take a look: http://mindandhand.mit.edu/educators/educators.shtml

Student and molecular models

http://fox4kc.com/2012/01/11/little-girl-has-big-breakthrough-in-tiny-world/

More information on the reaction

http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/gases/faq/co2-from-vinegar-and-baking-soda.shtml

A paper by Sarkar and Frazier (Dr. F) about the complication that arises when using a certain technique to try to observe the conservation of mass with the vinegar and baking soda reaction. Read this, see what you understand, ask questions:    conmass

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12 October Science 7 Graphs from the clay drop; Newton’s 3rd law; Rotational motion and removing the force; Conservation of Momentum; intro to air pressure water rockets

Please check your graphs of the clay drop. We will project one or two and discuss. On the back of the graph write several sentences analyzing the results. Include any questions you have related to any aspect of the event(s). Include suggestions of how we might improve on our observations of a freely falling object.

Free fall of a lump of clay. To what extent can we detect constant acceleration?

Period 1 clay drop trials: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1-3NW3ykEQBSPKcADGXY3-vawH8ybRgbrKI75FBI3_XA/edit?usp=sharing

Period 3 clay drop trials: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/14YHiW8j0J6SOULNBKFQIXiWXNz5T2ZCBn60xrfT2oZk/edit?usp=sharing

I pull you and you pull me–an introduction to Newton’s 3rd law.

  • The third law is very important but it can also be confusing.
  • Try this by veratasium: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8bTdMmNZm2M&t=12s
  • (Maybe this will help you solve the puzzle of two objects of different mass falling. Note: We have not yet looked at Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.)
  • Let us know your reaction to this summary of Newton’s Laws of Motion:
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKKM8Y-u7ds
  • Can you find a moment in the animations where what the narrator says in not exactly what is being shown?

Rotation–think of how there must be a force to cause a mass to move in a circular  or other curved path–like an orbit.

  • We will spin a metal cube on the floor and then let go of the string. We will sprinkle flour so that we can detect its path when release. You should draw your expectation before the experiment in your notes.

Next we will further develop the concept of momentum, which is the mass x velocity. (mv). Momentum is fairly intuitive for most people. What is really important is that momentum is conserved. We will talk about this in a little detail and try to conduct a qualitative demonstration about this very quantitative idea. A conservation principle is like an equation that nature has given us. The quantity we have before an event/interaction/reaction is equal to the same quantity after.

  • Examples:
  • Conservation of Mass
  • Conservation of Energy
  • Conservation of Momentum
  • Conservation of  Electric Charge
  • The conservation principles or laws relate to one of the big Cross-cutting concepts: Stability and Change. Can you see what the relation is?
  • Air pressure water rockets.
  • Design of rockets and design of possible experiments.

Upcoming: building, launching, completing the second summative assessment project on motion (a visual explanation). Introduction of long term project. WOW Preparation.

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11 Oct. Science 8 Moon today; Experiments in a bottle–closed system

See the moon this morning at 5:40 am viewed from 2nd floor balcony. Notice in the shot with the building how high the moon is in the sky. To take the picture I was turned west and a little south. To get the building exposed in the picture, the moon became over-exposed. Notice the surface in the zoomed picture. Compare to previous pictures on the blog. Also notice that the “curved” portion of the illuminated disk points east–in a line across the sky overhead (towards the sun).

We will go outside for the first period to see this moon and to locate the sun at the same time. Remember this is a key to figuring out the motion–point to the moon and the sun at the same time. Watch how this angle between your arms changes from day to day and how the phases correspond to these angles.

 

 

 

***WHENEVER THERE IS A SET OF DATA, A FIRST STEP IN ANALYSIS IS TO MAKE A HISTOGRAM. THE HISTOGRAM VISUALLY DISPLAYS CENTRAL TENDENCIES (MEAN, MEDIAN, MODE) AND THE PRECISION (HOW VARIED THE RESULTS ARE). WHAT QUESTIONS COULD YOU ASK ABOUT EACH REACTION ABOVE AND BELOW? WHAT TRENDS, IF ANY, ARE SUGGESTED BY THE CLASS DATA? HOW COULD YOU INCREASE YOUR CONFIDENCE THAT A REAL PATTERN OCCURS? WHAT DO YOU THINK THE DIFFERENCE(S) IS (ARE) IN REACTIONS THAT TAKE PLACE IN OPEN SYSTEMS AND IN CLOSED SYSTEMS?***

Finish setting up reactions 4 and 5 (both in closed containers).

Reaction 4.

Place a bit of the steel wool (that has had the coating of oil removed by soaking in vinegar) into a plastic drink bottle with a few drops of water. Close the lid tightly. Dry the outside of the bottle completely. Write your names, period, date, time, and steel wool in moist air on a piece of masking tape and place on the outside of the bottle. Find and record the mass of the bottle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/14FwGAKLDQq807T-ntdtD4Rp2dzveqX8HuAk3eunY2ws/edit?usp=sharing

Reaction 5.

Place a bit of steel wool into a bottle. Ask Dr. F how much. Cover the steel wool with vinegar. Tighten the lid. Dry the outside of the bottle. Label with tape–names, period, date, time, and steel wool immersed in vinegar. Find and record the mass of the bottle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1_UM-F_4LSQtvW3e4PaJiFknqv0wamDnNJbtHj6x2e3c/edit?usp=sharing

Look at the bottles with the steel wool in moist air (crushed) left and the steel wool immersed in vinegar (expanded) right. What do you think has happened in each?

Vinegar and baking soda. How can we get the reaction to occur in a closed system so that no gas escapes?

Examine the procedure below. There will also be a demonstration in class of the procedure–be sure to watch. Then try for yourself. Enter your data: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/18kjFLcw_LY_ojK5RFEh7sfCikb6U28rCPlQ6Gj0h50A/edit?usp=sharing

What do you already know or think you know about the reaction between vinegar and baking soda? What do you think happens?

  1. Wear eye protection.
  2. Plastic bottle with tight-fitting lid. Totally clean and dry on the outside. Carefully find the mass of the bottle.
  3. Add 50 ml vinegar to the bottle. Find the mass again.
  4. Weigh 5 grams of baking soda on a tissue.
  5. Gently bring the corners of the tissue together and make a small bundle.
  6. Carefully put the bundle into the bottle. DO NOT LET the vinegar come in contact with the baking soda. They must remain separated.
  7. Fit the cap so that the corners of the tissue bundle are held when the cap is tightlyclosed.
  8. Find the mass of the closed bottle, tissue, baking soda, vinegar.
  9. Gentle shake or turn the bottle so that the vinegar comes into contact with the tissue bundle of baking soda. Observe what happens.
  10. When the reaction seems to slow / stop, find the mass of the bottle (still closed tightly) again.
  11. Very slowly and carefully open the lid. Try not to let droplets of liquid fly out. After the gas is released. Find the mass of the bottle, lid, remaining liquid and tissue. Carefully smell the remaining contents. Compare to the smell of “fresh” vinegar.
  12. Enter your data on the class spreadsheet.
  13. Clean up the bottle. (No tissue down the sink!)
  • What do you think happened to the vinegar?
  • What do you think happened to the baking soda?
  • What do you think the gas might be?
  • Where do you think the gas came from–the vinegar, the baking soda, both?
  • How could you find out by experimentation?
  • Based on your previous experiments what mass of gas can be released from 2 grams of baking soda and 60 ml of vinegar? Think of a workable procedure.
  • What volume of gas can be released from 1 gram of baking soda and 30 ml of vinegar? Think of a workable procedure.
  • What are the properties of the gas? Think of a workable procedure to collect and test the gas.
  • What proportions of vinegar and baking soda are needed for a complete reaction–where no baking soda is left over and no vinegar is left over? What are the tests to know if you have reached a complete reaction? Think of a workable procedure.
  • What remains in the solution after the reaction is completed? Think of a workable procedure.
  • Other questions–pose some.
  • SOME NOTES ON THE VINEGAR AND BAKING SODA REACTION
  • Ingredients before the reaction (reactants)
  • Baking soda (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate) + Vinegar (5% acetic acid in water) —>
  • Some products that are not Baking soda and vinegar
  • What are these products?
  • A gas–what might the gas be? what are its properties? How much gas is produced?? How much volume? Is the gas made from the baking soda only, from the vinegar only, or does each compound contribute something that then comes together to make the gas?
  • A liquid (water? something dissolved in the water? more than one thing dissolved in the water?
  • What are the relative amounts of baking soda and vinegar that will completely react with each other so that no baking soda is left AND no vinegar is left.

The simplest set of changes to get from vinegar and baking soda to the reaction products.

NaHCO3 + CH3COOH —-> CO2 + H2O + CH3COONa
(this is a description of the overall reaction which occurs in several steps)

Model of reaction between vinegar and baking soda (acetic acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate). Observe, replicate, sketch, photograph, animate.

A.

startreactvbs

B.

midreactvbs

C.

endreactvbs

 

There is a very interesting project from MIT which uses LEGOS to represent atoms and molecules. Take a look: http://mindandhand.mit.edu/educators/educators.shtml

Student and molecular models

http://fox4kc.com/2012/01/11/little-girl-has-big-breakthrough-in-tiny-world/

More information on the reaction

http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/gases/faq/co2-from-vinegar-and-baking-soda.shtml

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10 Oct. Science 7 Review of concepts, units. New concepts, units. Falling, spinning, “exploding.” 3rd Law and Conservation of Momentum

Your questions?

Review of concepts related to motion. (You should have these “listed” in your digital science notebook. See previous blog post.)

Review of units of important quantities. (You should have these “listed” in your digital science notebook. See previous blog post.)

Review of techniques for observing and measuring motion. (You should have these “listed” in your digital science notebook. See previous blog post.)

Free fall of a lump of clay. To what extent can we detect constant acceleration?

Period 1 clay drop trials: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1-3NW3ykEQBSPKcADGXY3-vawH8ybRgbrKI75FBI3_XA/edit?usp=sharing

Period 3 clay drop trials: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/14YHiW8j0J6SOULNBKFQIXiWXNz5T2ZCBn60xrfT2oZk/edit?usp=sharing

Newton’s 3rd law–You pull, I pull.

Spinning–what happens? Removing the force involved in circular motion and seeing how inertia involves “straight-line” motion.

The Conservation of Momentum–a qualitative (semi-quantitative) display.

What do you think of this Bill Nye the Science Guy video on Momentum

All this is leading up to air-pressure, water rockets.

 

 

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9 October Science 8 Continuing with chemical reactions–open systems and closed systems

From 5 October:

Share your data on the class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1V5y4RdyVXmki565eVOHY-iOgfw_zY0L9tA1sFFcxzqQ/edit?usp=sharing

How would these data look on a histogram? What pattern do you expect in the change in mass?

Here is a description of the reaction in words:

magnesium sulfate + sodium carbonate  —-> magnesium carbonate + sodium sulfate

BEFORE YOU EXAMINE EACH REACTION, TAKE THE TIME TO WRITE DOWN IN YOUR DIGITAL SCIENCE NOTEBOOK WHAT YOU EXPECT TO HAPPEN AND WHY? MAKE A SKETCH OF YOUR IDEAS. THIS STEP IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR YOU TO GET THE MOST FROM OBSERVING THESE REACTIONS.

Reaction 2.

Put 5 grams of sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda) in a small flask. Put 100 grams of vinegar (5% acetic acid) in a beaker. Find the mass of the flask and baking soda, the beaker and vinegar, AND a dropper as pictured. Next add drops of vinegar to the flask. Observe what happens. Describe in words. Take pictures. Continue adding until the baking soda has disappeared and no more reaction is apparent. Be very careful not to spill any material. Add the vinegar slowly so no material bubbles or splashes out of the flask. Find the mass at the end of the reaction.

Enter your results in the class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1FPUcINAnYp8lzIQGBFd4dMElVeuZnXBipljpH9gRzgA/edit?usp=sharing

A description of the reaction:

Sodium hydrogen carbonate + acetic acid —>Sodium acetate + water + carbon dioxide

Be sure to record your observations, thoughts, and questions. Be thorough.

Reaction 3.

See the class demonstration on how to set up an examination of how the mass of steel wool is affected when burned (oxidized) in an open system. Be sure to attend to the safety instructions.

Class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/16AV1jCy1Urmu8Up7KKN7xwCqrRBC9pGFWOBtgxdKFhA/edit?usp=sharing

Reaction 4.

Place a bit of the steel wool (that has had the coating of oil removed by soaking in vinegar) into a plastic drink bottle with a few drops of water. Close the lid tightly. Dry the outside of the bottle completely. Write your names, period, date, time, and steel wool in moist air on a piece of masking tape and place on the outside of the bottle. Find and record the mass of the bottle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/14FwGAKLDQq807T-ntdtD4Rp2dzveqX8HuAk3eunY2ws/edit?usp=sharing

Reaction 5.

Place a bit of steel wool into a bottle. Ask Dr. F how much. Cover the steel wool with vinegar. Tighten the lid. Dry the outside of the bottle. Label with tape–names, period, date, time, and steel wool immersed in vinegar. Find and record the mass of the bottle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1_UM-F_4LSQtvW3e4PaJiFknqv0wamDnNJbtHj6x2e3c/edit?usp=sharing

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6 Oct. Sci 8 1-8 Day: Revision reminder; Data entry; Select human impact topic

Revision of the Mixing Ethanol and Water due 1st day after fall break, 23 Oct, at the beginning of your period. Have paper copies already printed.

  • Paper copies:
  • Revision
  • Document explaining what was changed and why

Digital science notebook (in matter folder, clearly labeled and shared):

  • Original
  • Revision
  • Document explaining what was changed and why (be sure you have addressed powerschool and in-person feedback)

Be sure your data from the reaction between magnesium sulfate and sodium carbonate is entered in the class spreadsheet.

The moon this morning at 5:40 am, looking at the western sky. 

 

Selecting a topic for the case studies of human impact on the environment. Once you have your topic selected (by lottery), begin watching for items “in the news.” Begin creating annotations:

Annotation (for each reference):

  1. Full bibliographic information, author, date, title, publication, volume, edition, page (or equivalent). If web-based, include the url, the date of posting (last edit), and the date you last accessed.
  2. Information about the author and publication–background, expertise, affiliation. If no author, focus on the publication.
  3. Content of the article. Be specific. Big ideas and enough of the significant details to get a sense of what the article is about.
  4. Point of view and usefulness. Is the article a report of original research or a review of research or an opinion-editorial or a reflective essay or some other genre? If a point of view being presented. What kind of evidence is used to support the points made in the article?

Topics

( < https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1SXx0Zvtkx8C3SixY99dE-F5_GNS0XYM0yjkp3oNGqsg/edit?usp=sharing >)

  1. (Global) CO2–greenhouse effect–global warming–global climate change—shifting of carbon cycle
  2. India(Invasive species in India—loss of native habitat and biodiversity)
  3. (India) Endangered species. Habitat loss. Trade in endangered species. Animal human conflict. Conservation efforts in India.
  4. (Global)Elements in an Ipad-Laptop-Cell phone–Rare earths and conflict minerals—environmental costs of technology
  5. (India)Air quality in Delhi–air pollution
  6. (Global)The Anthropocene and the 6th great extinction
  7. (India)Mining-industrial, economic development, urban sprawl and conservation of nature / habitat / biodiversity in India
  8. (India)Agriculture-pesticides-fertilizer-nutrition and health in India
  9. (Global with local examples) The concept of ecosystem services—re-evaluating economic policy and theory in light of the environment—other ways to assess the value of the environment—international examples—Indian example.
  10. (India) The degradation and altering watersheds—River linking, dams.
  11. (India-Delhi) Access to clean water—sewage—pollution—irrigation—shortage of water.
  12. (Global) New Diseases. Zoonotic diseases. 
  13. (Global) Food security. Genetic engineering. Reduction in genetic diversity of food crops. Selection of herbicide resistant weeds. Loss of pollinator populations and diversity (pesticides and bees, for example).
  14. (Global and local) Deforestation–India, Tropics, Worldwide
  15. (Global and local) Climate denial, science denial, removal of environmental protections
  16. (Global and local) Current state of “green energy.” Renewable energy. Non-carbon based energy technologies
  17. (Global and local) Habitat restoration. “ Rewilding.”E.O. Wilson’s Half-Earth proposal.
  18. (Global and India) Promising environmentally sustainable practices and technologies (other than green energy examples from #16).
  19. (local)AES efforts to implement environmentally friendly practices. Areas for improvement. Suggestions.
  20. You choose—must be distinct from other options.

 

 

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6 October Science 7 1-8 day Stream Art for WOW, Tumble Buddy Revision, Graphs from yesterday

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B7XSWuqcyqgSRFQzOWRIRmYydGM

Tumble Buggy revision is due by the end of school today. Paper copies of revision: Document explaining what was changed and why. Digital Science Notebook: Original. Revision. Document explaining what was changed and why. Incomplete revisions not considered.

Look at the graphs. Velocity vs. time is different from Distance vs. time. A straight line on a velocity vs. time graph means a constant rate of change of velocity or constant acceleration. A straight line on a distance vs. time graph means a constant rate of change of position or constant speed. A non-straight line–curved–on a distance vs. time graph means acceleration. If the curve is of a certain form (see the example below), then the acceleration will be constant. The example below is drawn from data of an object in free fall. The object is subject to the constant force of gravity. Remember the idea from class that the slope of a tangent drawn on the graph at an instant of time is the instantaneous speed. So you could figure out the speeds at each second and then construct a velocity vs. time graph. If the line is straight, then the acceleration is constant. Think about the distinctions. Ask questions for what seems confusing. Think of examples from class and from your own experience.

 

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5 October Science 7 Consolidating and Continuing Concepts of Motion

Today–let’s see where we are in our study of motion. Let’s begin by considering quantities and units used to measure and analyze motion. The techniques for measurement and analysis help define the concepts.

  • Space
  • meter (originally defined at 1 10,ooo,ooo of the distance from the earth to the equator)
  • Time
  • second (an early definition was debated as the period of 2 seconds (over and back) of a pendulum that has a length of (nearly) a meter; other methods involved subdividing a day based on observations of the sun or moon).
  • Speed
  • meters / second
  • Velocity (includes direction)
  • meters / second with the direction (straight) specified
  • Force (includes direction)
  • kilogram x meters/second2 (called a Newton)
  • Acceleration (includes direction)
  • meters / second / second; meters/seconds2
  • Work-Energy
  • Newton x meter = Kilogram x meter2 / seconds2 =Joule
  • Vector is a quantity that includes direction. Solving basic vector problems requires the use of algebra and geometry..
  • Sample data
  • Constant Acceleration
  • 0 m/s at 0 seconds; 1 m/s at 1 second; 2 m/s at 2 seconds; 3 m/s at 3 seconds; 4 m/s at 4 seconds; 5 m/s at 5 seconds.  Rate of acceleration 1 m/s/s. The speed changes 1 m/s every second.
  • Make a velocity vs. time graph
  • Acceleration due to gravity
  • From http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-5/How-Fast-and-How-Far
  • Instantaneous velocity—graphical method
  • Clay drop–“mystery of comparing the falls of lighter and heavier objects (not significantly affected by friction with the air–air resistance). Also class data from dropping a sizable lump of clay from various heights on the outdoor stairway.
  • Rotational motion—a demonstration to consider the importance of inertia and the idea that velocity includes direction
  • Newton’s 3 Laws
  • MomentumMass x velocity; Kg x meters/second
  • Conservation of Momentum–a simple suggestive demonstration
  • Air Pressure WaterRockets–design, performance, principles of Newtonian motion
  • Designing a rocket, building a rocket, predicting its performance, conducting launches (2 guaranteed), measuring and evaluating launches, creating a visual description AND explanation (no words, letters, or numerals. 2nd Summative project on motion. More details coming on what needs to be included.
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4 October Science 8 Beginning Chemical Reactions

Are you watching the moon and recording your observations? This is an important time to watch.

In the next few sessions, we will embark on exploration of chemical reactions. These investigations will yield observations to add to your repertoire. Our discussions will develop the idea that the behavior and properties of matter at the scale we observe can be explained by the behavior and properties of atoms and molecules. This grand explanation is called The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter. When consideration of energy is included the explanation is called The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter.

On Friday, when we have a 1-8 day, we will have a lottery to select topics for our final unit of the year, Human Impact on the Earth. You are being assigned these topics at this time so that you can build a base of knowledge. You will need to begin collecting resources to build your familiarity and expertise in the topic area. More on Friday. Before WOW we will devote some time to preparing for the River–a preview of our unit Earth Cycles/Earth Systems.

Reaction 1.

Work with a partner that you have not worked with before, make a 50 ml solution of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) and another 50 ml solution of sodium carbonate (Washing soda). Keep a record of how much of each solute you add–the solutions should not be saturated. Leave no solid undissolved. Find the total mass of the beakers and solutions (as picture below).

Next pour solution 1 into solution 2. Do not spill. Observe what happens and describe in words. Take pictures. Measure the mass after mixing. Be sure to keep both beakers on the balance.

Share your data on the class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1V5y4RdyVXmki565eVOHY-iOgfw_zY0L9tA1sFFcxzqQ/edit?usp=sharing

Here is a description of the reaction in words:

magnesium sulfate + sodium carbonate  —-> magnesium carbonate + sodium sulfate

Reaction 2.

Put 5 grams of sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda) in a small flask. Put 100 grams of vinegar (5% acetic acid) in a beaker. Find the miss of the flask and baking soda, the beaker and vinegar, AND a dropper as pictured. Next add drops of vinegar to the flask. Observe what happens. Describe in words. Take pictures. Continue adding until the baking soda has disappeared and no more reaction is apparent. Be very careful no to spill any material. Add the vinegar slowly so no material bubbles or splashes out of the flask. Find the mass at the end of the reaction.

Enter your results in the class spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1FPUcINAnYp8lzIQGBFd4dMElVeuZnXBipljpH9gRzgA/edit?usp=sharing

A description of the reaction:

Sodium hydrogen carbonate + acetic acid —>Sodium acetate + water + carbon dioxide

Be sure to record your observations, thoughts, and questions. Be thorough.

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3 October Science 7 Selecting partner trees

Today we will pick partner trees and finish the walk around the schoolyard. Keep your eyes open and listen closely to information about the campus trees. Notice things you have never noticed before! You will observe this tree throughout the rest of the year. You will become an expert on the species and maybe the genus and plant family, too. The individual specimen that is your partner tree will become your friend. You can and will tell each other secrets and be interested in the changes that take place during the year. Take pictures of the whole tree and the parts–leaves, branches, bark, flowers, fruits and seeds. Try to sprout some seeds if your tree has them. Make sketches. Make written observations. Write a poem about your tree. Take note of the animals that live in and on your tree–birds, insects, spiders, squirrels, etc. Write poems about your tree. Compose songs. Conduct scientific observations and research.

Some native trees:  suitabletreesdelhi

Compare the results of tree surveys by Sci 7 2015-2016s and 2016-2017

  1. 2016-17 Pd8: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/10Cn1AfKkJyn9sw6CqiqEKldKlSElFLnGuILofRyMm-s/edit?usp=sharing
  2. 2016-17 Pd6: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/110bXByMlkl6xHnX2nOhG8T1SJKmix273nlffkzCVfNk/edit?usp=sharing
  3. 2016-17 Pd5: https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/10RdXmdn9v1838NjucBgUKcAR1SCu8o4YSyjeEUhIPRg/edit?usp=sharing
  4. 2015-16 Period8 treelistperiod8 or https://docs.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/spreadsheets/d/1R3UemPGz8uowhkVtk43QhMRHLaIwWhMt4GyS2jsyaBc/edit?usp=sharing
  5. 2015-16 Period6  tree survey period6 or https://drive.google.com/a/aes.ac.in/file/d/0B4DPwlouN3dIeDdseWVUZEVWYTg/view?usp=sharing
  6. Tree list from FMO 2014-2015 school year (includes campus housing) Trees at AES 20142015 FMO

Things to observe about trees:

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