10 December Science 8 Scale Model e-book / video; parent newsletter #2; A Private Universe

Mindful moment.

Previous class was a workday devoted to projects.

Today’s blogpost–take a look.

Prepare todays’ DSN entry.

  • Copy link from today’s blogpost.
  • List each of the 7 items as headings.
  • Write an anticipatory statement for each item.

Questions

  • * * * *

Show e-Books and / videos.

Our room is M313.

  • * * * *

Upload a well-labeled photo and a well-labeled sketch with your name and with captions/brief explanations. Also upload an excerpt from your Chemical Reactions summative. Also upload photo, sketch, excerpt from our Astronomy unit.

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1eUDDiBpks6wN0IWB5iu0gAHAVbL-4Qlr?usp=sharing

  • * * * *
  1. Organize your moon observations.
  2. Organize any other observations you have made of Sun, Stars, Planets.
  3. Consider your scale model. How much bigger was the sun than the earth’s moon? How can you explain that the moon and the sun look very close to the same size from our point of view on earth? Make a sketch illustrating your idea. Do not look up.
  4. Write your explanation for the relationship between the phases of the moon and its rising time, setting time, and time crossing the local meridian. Which way does the moon orbit? How many times does the moon rotate in an orbit? How many days does it take for the moon to make one orbit around the earth? Make sketches to illustrate your ideas. Do not look up.
  • * * * *

Get a calendar for 2018 through 2019.

Count the days from the Fall Equinox 2018 through the Spring Equinox 2019. Start your count the day following the Fall Equinox.

Count the days from the Spring Equinox 2019 through the Fall Equinox 2019. Start your count the day following the Spring Equinox 2019.

What do you find out? What is revealed about the Earth’s orbit?

Which direction do you think the Earth orbits the sun? What observations serve as evidence for your idea.

How do you explain the seasons?

Make a sketch of your ideas.

  • * * * *

Let’s watch: A Private Universe <https://vimeo.com/113349804>

Take notes, list new words and ideas, record (and ask) your questions. Go back and watch again on your own.

What are some ideas and mental pictures in your own “Private Universe?”

 

 

 

 

 

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7 December 2018 Science 7 “Rube Goldberg” System, Device, Kinetic Sculpture

*Mindful moment. Let’s watch: https://www.mindfulschools.org/video/release-2/

  • Release (first line–“Middle School can be really hard sometimes.”)

*Review previous class–blogpost, demonstrations, DSN entry

*See today’s blogpost and plan

*Prepare DSN entry for the day

  • Copy the link to today’s blog
  • Note the 7 items
  • Make a heading
  • Write an anticipatory statement in each

*Questions

Ideas about energy

Things you saw in the last class

Things we haven’t seen yet that involve energy

Etc.

  • * * * *

For our next few classes we will work on the design, construction, operation, and presentation of

A ‘Rube Goldberg’ system or device which employs 3 forms of energy in a chain of transformations

You may bring any materials (must be safe) to use yourself or to share with classmates. Old toys, etc. can be very useful.

See the list of images: <https://www.rubegoldberg.com/image-gallery-licensing/>

More links for Rube Goldberg “machines” and more http://www.mousetrapcontraptions.com/rube-cartoons-2.html

  • * * * *

We will also work on the 2nd newsletter.

Pick out sketches, photos, excerpts from written DSN entries that you have related to the comeback can, the rocket, the swing experiment, the energy demonstrations, the Rube Goldberg energy transformation project. Make sure your name and period are attached to each item. Sketches and photos need captions/explanations. Send to:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1cL7Q3edI1gmsbIAXnN50yIqUi8LhAWpC?usp=sharing

We also want short interviews about the comeback can summative. (Video and transcribe)

 

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6 December Science 8 Preparing the Solar System Scale Model — Ebook or video

Take a mindful moment.

Then use today to work on/complete your Astronomy summative. It is due on Monday at the beginning of class. Be prepared to present your project if you win the presentation lottery.

See the description below:

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 18-19 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

***Groups prepare and construct the model.

Include the sun and all planets. Include Pluto. Include Ganymede (moon of Jupiter). Include Earth’s moon. Mark on a paper map the “location” distance to the closest star (other than the sun); It is a binary pair–Alpha Centauri <https://www.space.com/18090-alpha-centauri-nearest-star-system.html>. Is your map “big” enough?

***Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.

  2. Produce in digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard for videos.

  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.

  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale. Portray the making of the scale and the realizations you came to when enacting/traveling the scale model.

  5. Present in digital copy (in students’ DSNs) the directions, times, and inclinations of orbits. Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.

8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models

8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

Helpful information in previous blogs–NASA websites, samples of student work from the past:

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/12/04/4-dec-science-8-scale-model-of-solar-system/

and

http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/11/30/30-november-science-8-planning-the-solar-system-model/

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5 December Science 7 Energy? Forms, Transformations, Questions

Mindful moment.

Review last class–blogpost and your DSN entry. What is WORK? How is energy related? What did you learn about pulleys and the conservation of energy?

See today’s blogpost. Review the board. See the pulley system at the front of the class. Take a picture. Explain it in today’s DSN entry.

Set up today’s blogpost.

Questions.

  • * * * *

There will be a number of demonstrations–related to energy.

Observe. Take pictures. Take notes. Ask questions. Write down possible explanations. Make sketches.

 

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4 Dec Science 8 Scale Model of Solar System

Mindful moment

Quick look through today’s blog (samples of student work included)

Prepare for setting up model outside

Have plan to place representational objects at scaled distances and to retrieve them before return to class. Leave no materials outside.

Have plan for photo shots and videos (if you need these). Take perspective shots to give a sense of the sizes and distances in the model. For Alpha Centauri–you can have a signpost at Pluto pointing the way and the distance to some scaled spot (should fit on the real Earth but won’t be in Delhi!).

Be careful. Be super-aware of your surroundings. Especially take precautions with traffic.

Give yourself time to get back to class before the end of the period.

If you return to class and have time, begin working on your ebook or video.

The ebook or video is due at the beginning of class on Monday 10 December. You will only need digital copies (unless you also want to have a hard copy). Some/all projects will be presented. Be prepared if you are called on. We can draw names by lottery–smile.

You’ll need a reference page with full bibliographic information. Only citing the url is not sufficient. Author(s), Title, Date (published AND accessed if internet source), etc.

Consult: <https://www.umsl.edu/~comm/files/pdfs/internet.pdf>

” . . .the principle is that you need to provide enough information to allow a reader to track down the original source or, if that proves impossible, allow the reader to evaluate the credibility of that source. Since webpages can change so rapidly, it is not adequate to simply list the URL in the reference list. By the time someone reads your paper, the URL may no longer be functioning. The page to which it leads may have changed. Providing additional information about the webpage may help readers to find the information if it has been moved. It also allows them to determine for themselves whether the source is credible and current. There is, therefore, some basic information that you should always provide for each of your internet sources. If you are citing information that was first published on the web, you need to provide:

  • the name of the author; it may a specific person or an organization
  • the date on which the document was posted or notation that no date was available
  • and the name of the document or webpage
  • a retrieval statement indicating when and where on the web you accessed the information. The retrieval statement should include:
  • the date you accessed the website
  • the name of the website
  • the URL or web-address of the site”
  • * * * *

Some information (these links suggest other links you might find as well):

The nearest star (after the sun)

https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/features/cosmic/nearest_star_info.html

https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/distances.html?n=771

Pluto and beyond

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/newhorizons/overview/index.html

http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/

Neptune

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/neptune/overview/

https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/all-about-neptune/en/

Uranus

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/uranus/overview/

https://www.nasa.gov/uranus

Saturn

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/cassini/science/saturn/

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/saturn/overview/

Jupiter

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/jupiter/overview/

https://www.nasa.gov/jupiter

Mars Insight mission

https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/

Venus

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/venus/overview/

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/venus/exploration/

Mercury

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/mercury/overview/

Some student work from the past. (Note that the videos were done as group projects and were not common summative assessments at that time. But they might offer some inspiration.)

Sun

https://www.nasa.gov/sun

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/solar-system/sun/overview/

An e-book:

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1nTHqaZUyb3kyPjxJjqzWQO6XiC07ikIthPQmgCFFVVw/edit?usp=sharing

Another e-book:

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/10eTjoWLtUPMQVw1rRYkJvmiKruHqNkjP-6mKbXyr7m0/edit?usp=sharing

Some student videos (these were group projects and were longer than the current limit of 5 minutes)

 

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3 December Science 7 Work-Energy-Pulley Systems (Conservation of Energy)

Mindful moment

Past class review–what did you write about the playground swings? what is revealed about force, falling/swinging, energy? Were you surprised at anything that happened or that did not happen? Explain your surprise.

Review today’s blog. Pay close attention to the photographs of the pulley systems.

Prepare your DSN entry.

Questions

  • * * * *

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qybUFnY7Y8w

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aBj0ypOuiFY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_hbEhyrNAM

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/a-surprisingly-uncomplicated-look-at-rube-goldberg-machines-in-movies

Dates?

3 Dec Pulleys Work-Energy Principle

5 Dec Magnets-Electricity-Electromagnetism-Light-Sound-Wave motion

7 Dec Rube Goldberg Challenge

11 Dec Rube Goldberg Demonstrations and energy writing

13 Dec Magnetism

17 Dec Electricity

19 Dec Sound

How would you explain the idea of Energy? How do you think your idea might compare to the scientific idea? How many forms of energy can you think of? What do you suspect the concept of “work” is? What might be the relationship between work and energy?

  • * * * *

In order to build our ideas about energy, we will examine how forces are applied in pulley systems and how much work goes in and how much comes out. (Energy is the capacity to do work.)

Recall the different relationships between the fundamental quantities: mass, space (distance), time

This is useful <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/work.html>

  • Velocity (speed with direction) = distance/time (Meters/Second)
  • Acceleration = Velocity/time (Meters / Second²)
  • Force = Mass x Acceleration (Kilogram x Meters / Second²) (Newtons)
  • Momentum = Mass x Velocity (Kilogram x Meters / Second)
  • Pressure = Force / Area (Newton / Meter²) (Pascal) (Pounds per square inch-psi; and Bar are units of pressure that are not part of the scientific metric unit system)
  • Work = Force x Distance (Energy is the capacity to do work). (Joules)
  • Power = Work/Time (Force x Distance / Time) (Joules/Second or Watts)

Pulleys are used to make work seem easier.  There are two ways in which a pulley can make work easier.

  1. Pulleys can change the direction of the force
  2. Pulleys can multiply the force applied by spreading it over a longer distance.

There are three main types of pulleys: single – fixed pulley,  single moveable pulley, and   block and tackle – at least one fixed pulley and one moveable pulley in a system.

There are many online references for pulleys. Here is one: http://www.ropebook.com/information/pulley-systems

Build and operate the three systems (see photos). Examine and record the work input and work output of each pulley system and compare them to one another.

PROCEDURE:  Single fixed pulley (see photos)

  1. You will first need to set up a single fixed pulley system as directed by your teacher.
  2. Determine the weight of the object being lifted by attaching it to a Newton spring scale and recording this value in row B.
  3. Attach the weight to one end of a string and run it up and around a single fixed pulley attached to the top bar. Attach the short end of the string to spring scale.
  4. Using a meter stick, note the height at which the spring scale is attached to the string.  Pull on the scale so that it moves at a constant speed and record the reading on the scale in row E.
  5. Move the weight being lifted up .1m (10 cm) from the tabletop to the bottom of the object.  Record this in row C.
  6.  Determine the distance that the scale was moved by subtracting the final reading from the initial reading on the meter stick.  Record this value in row F.
  7. Calculate out the remaining rows using the formulas provided and your data.

Single moveable pulley (see photos)

  1. Tie one end of a string to the top bar.  Run the string through a pulley and attach the other end to a spring scale.
  2. Connect the pulley to the object being lifted and repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the data table

Block and tackle pulley system (see photos)

  1. Tie a pulley to the top bar.  Loop a string through this pulley.  Tie one end of the string to the top of a second pulley and take the other end and loop it around the second pulley and then tie it to the spring scale.  Connect the weight to the second pulley
  2. Repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the  data table

Complete the following data table:

A

Single fixed pulley Single moveable pulley Block and tackle

B

Resistance force-Weight of object being lifted(N)

C

Resistance distance -Height that the object is lifted(m)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

D

Work output (J)              = force x distance(B x C)

E

Effort force (N) (Reading from spring scale as string is pulled)

F

Effort Distance    How far scale is moved (m)

G

Work input (J)    = force x distance (E x F)

H

Mechanical advantage (B/E)

I

Efficiency = work output/work input(D/G) x 100

1.     Which pulley system required the greatest effort force?  Explain why.

2.     Which type of pulley had the greatest mechanical advantage?  Explain why this is.

(HINT:  Think of which system you had to pull the most string through)

3.     What would be an easier way to determine the mechanical advantage of a pulley system?

(HINT:  Think of how many strings are holding up the weight)

4.     Which pulley system was the most efficient?   Is this what you expected?

5.     Explain the best way that a mechanic could pull out a large truck engine by himself using the least possible amount of force.

6.     Try another system with more than 3 pulleys. Record your ideas and your results.

7.     In what sense does the pulley make the work easier?

8.     Design a simple machine (which works) where the input work is less than the output work. If this is not possible, explain why you think so.

A single pulley. Input force is directed down, weight moves up.

Single moveable pulley. Lifting force moves weight upward.

Block and tackle. One moveable pulley and one fixed pulley.  Downward input force lifts weight upward.

Some different ways to think about energy and energy transformations; the development of ideas about energy:

http://www.physics4kids.com/files/thermo_laws.html

http://education.seattlepi.com/everyday-examples-first-second-laws-thermodynamics-4740.html

http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/152.mf1i.spring02/MayerJoule.htm

https://nmsolar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Energy_Concepts_Primer.pdf

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/ancestors-einstein.html

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30 November Science 8 Planning the Solar System Model

Mindful moment.

Review previous DSN entry and Blogpost. (Make sure details of Solar System scale model project are clear).

Read today’s blog.

Prepare for record-keeping DSN entry in Astronomy folder.

Questions.

  • * * * *

Today:

Develop Chart with scale distances and sizes.

Like this one:

Solar System Chart

Object
Actual Size
Scale Size
Actual distance from Sun
Scale distance from Sun
Direction of orbit (indicate frame of reference)
AND
Time of orbit
Inclination of orbit to earth’s orbit
Interesting facts—atmosphere, composition, spin-rotation (direction, orientation, time, etc.), space craft visits, landings, etc.
Sun
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Earth’s moon
Mars
Jupiter
Ganymede
Saturn
Neptune
Uranus
Pluto
*Alpha Centauri
  • Double-check calculations. What is the scale factor you are using? How many times are you shrinking the solar system to reach your scale?
  • Locate objects on map.
  • Build or select scaled objects to represent actual objects.
  • Plan still and video shots.
  • Plan commentary.
  • Practice inside with trundle wheel, objects, camera(s), commentary, etc.
  • Plan individual product.
  • Find out about Kepler’s discoveries–he only had an early telescope, no calculators or computers, how did he do it? http://www.historyoftelescope.com/telescope-invention/the-keplerian-telescope/

Next class we will depart immediately after the mindful moment. Bring all you need to class. If you wear a mask outside, bring that. If it is cold, bring a jacket or sweater.

Link for previous blog with Scale Model of Solar System project description: http://rfrazier.msblogs.aes.ac.in/2018/11/30/30-november-science-8-planning-the-solar-system-model/

See the description of the Summative Assessment Project below. You will build the model in groups, but the assessment project will be completed as individuals. We will use the sidewalk along the street along the west side of the school. We will begin in the next class. Be prepared.

mapschool

Each class will use San Martin Marg for the site of their models. San Martin Marg runs along the west side of the school. In the picture above, note the scale at the bottom right of the image. You can print this image to help you construct your model.

kcsolarmodel

“The exhibition begins with the sun, located at 13th and Baltimore, with the display running south along Baltimore through the Crossroads District, then ending in front of Union Station. The Voyage experience takes approximately thirty minutes to complete, walking at a leisurely pace from the sun to Pluto.”

http://voyagesolarsystem.org/community-network/kansas-city-kansas-voyage-mark-i/

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 18-19 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

***Groups prepare and construct the model.

Include the sun and all planets. Include Pluto. Include Ganymede (moon of Jupiter). Include Earth’s moon. Mark on a paper map the “location” distance to the closest star (other than the sun); It is a binary pair–Alpha Centauri <https://www.space.com/18090-alpha-centauri-nearest-star-system.html>. Is your map “big” enough?

***Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.

  2. Produce in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard.

  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.

  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale.

  5. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) the directions and inclinations of orbits. (Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.)

8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models

8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

An e-book:

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1nTHqaZUyb3kyPjxJjqzWQO6XiC07ikIthPQmgCFFVVw/edit?usp=sharing

Another e-book:

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/10eTjoWLtUPMQVw1rRYkJvmiKruHqNkjP-6mKbXyr7m0/edit?usp=sharing

Some student videos (these were group projects and were longer than the current limit of 5 minutes)

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29 November Science 7 Energy–playground swings–concept of work

Mindful moment.

Review last class in your DSN and on the blog.

Read today’s blog VERY CAREFULLY! Be sure to have at least one question to ask.

Prepare DSN entry for today–in Energy folder.

Questions.

  • * * * *

We will collect your summative projects. You should have paper copies AND electronic copies should be uploaded, labeled clearly, and shared properly in your DSN in the Motion folder.

  1. Poster with no words and no numerals.
  2. Description of your investigation and explanation of your poster.
  3. Reflection.

While you are waiting to be called to submit your project, work on the following. You may use headphones to view the videos.  You may get the headphones during the time the projects are being collected–when it is not your turn. Write your responses to the questions, your notes on the links, and your own questions in your DSN entry for today.

  • * * * * *

A brief investigation of the motion (including our new concept of Energy) of a familiar device–a playground swing. If you need an air pollution mask to go outside, please get it during the time projects are being collected.

(Remember your thinking about the ramp-walking elephant, the dropping of different masses of clay, the comeback can.)

What do you know about swinging on playground swings? Describe your experience. What affects what happens when you swing? How?

Swing = one full cycle back and forth

Frequency = how many swings occur in a given amount of time

What happens during one swing–direction? speed? weight? other?

What are the factors that affect how a swing operates? What is the basis for the effect?

swing

In what way is the comeback car like a swing?

Oscillators. See this video clip: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47LBKOaO0JU>

Watch the following video as homework. If you do not want to watch it in one sitting, watch it in segments. Use the captions. Start and stop to make sure you understand each example. List your questions about ideas, examples, vocabulary.

Change (from the Ring of Truth–An Inquiry into How We Know What We Know) <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nk8CQNThbc0>

Bill Nye the Science Guy on Energy <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qmSzMwTkpk>

Some ideas about Energy. Notice those expressed in common terms (from <https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Laws_of_thermodynamics>):

There are three ‘Laws’ of thermodynamics (“laws” in the sense that they describe how physical systems “must” behave), and also a “zeroth” law, which isn’t really a law so much as a definition of what is meant by “temperature”.

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics: “When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.”
  • First law of thermodynamics: “The total energy of the Universe is constant.”
  • Second law of thermodynamics: “The entropy of an isolated system does not decrease.”
  • Third law of thermodynamics: “As the temperature of a perfect crystal approaches zero, its entropy approaches a constant.”[1]

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Laws may be humorously summarized in non-scientific form as:

  1. You can’t get something for nothing.
  2. You can’t even break even unless you cool the temperature to absolute zero.
  3. It’s impossible to actually reach absolute zero.

Or, if you are a poker player:

  1. You can’t win.
  2. You can’t break even.
  3. You can’t get out of the game.
  • * * * *

How would you explain the idea of Energy? How do you think your idea might compare to the scientific idea? How many forms of energy can you think of? What do you suspect the concept of “work” is? What might be the relationship between work and energy?

  • * * * *

In order to build our ideas about energy, we will examine how forces are applied in pulley systems and how much work goes in and how much comes out. (Energy is the capacity to do work.)

Recall the different relationships between the fundamental quantities: mass, space (distance), time

  • Velocity (speed with direction) = distance/time (Meters/Second)
  • Acceleration = Velocity/time (Meters / Second²)
  • Force = Mass x Acceleration (Kilogram x Meters / Second²) (Newtons)
  • Momentum = Mass x Velocity (Kilogram x Meters / Second)
  • Pressure = Force / Area (Newton / Meter²) (Pascal) (Pounds per square inch-psi; and Bar are units of pressure that are not part of the scientific metric unit system)
  • Work = Force x Distance (Energy is the capacity to do work). (Joules)
  • Power = Work/Time (Force x Distance / Time) (Joules/Second or Watts)

Pulleys are used to make work seem easier.  There are two ways in which a pulley can make work easier.

  1. Pulleys can change the direction of the force
  2. Pulleys can multiply the force applied by spreading it over a longer distance.

There are three main types of pulleys: single – fixed pulley,  single moveable pulley, and   block and tackle – at least one fixed pulley and one moveable pulley in a system.

There are many online references for pulleys. Here is one: http://www.ropebook.com/information/pulley-systems

Build and operate the three systems (see photos). Examine and record the work input and work output of each pulley system and compare them to one another.

PROCEDURE:  Single fixed pulley (see photos)

  1. You will first need to set up a single fixed pulley system as directed by your teacher.
  2. Determine the weight of the object being lifted by attaching it to a Newton spring scale and recording this value in row B.
  3. Attach the weight to one end of a string and run it up and around a single fixed pulley attached to the top bar. Attach the short end of the string to spring scale.
  4. Using a meter stick, note the height at which the spring scale is attached to the string.  Pull on the scale so that it moves at a constant speed and record the reading on the scale in row E.
  5. Move the weight being lifted up .1m (10 cm) from the tabletop to the bottom of the object.  Record this in row C.
  6.  Determine the distance that the scale was moved by subtracting the final reading from the initial reading on the meter stick.  Record this value in row F.
  7. Calculate out the remaining rows using the formulas provided and your data.

Single moveable pulley (see photos)

  1. Tie one end of a string to the top bar.  Run the string through a pulley and attach the other end to a spring scale.
  2. Connect the pulley to the object being lifted and repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the data table

Block and tackle pulley system (see photos)

  1. Tie a pulley to the top bar.  Loop a string through this pulley.  Tie one end of the string to the top of a second pulley and take the other end and loop it around the second pulley and then tie it to the spring scale.  Connect the weight to the second pulley
  2. Repeat steps 4-8 as you did for the single fixed pulley and record your data in the  data table

Complete the following data table:

A

Single fixed pulley Single moveable pulley Block and tackle

B

Resistance force-Weight of object being lifted(N)

C

Resistance distance -Height that the object is lifted(m)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

.1 (10cm)

D

Work output (J)              = force x distance(B x C)

E

Effort force (N) (Reading from spring scale as string is pulled)

F

Effort Distance    How far scale is moved (m)

G

Work input (J)    = force x distance (E x F)

H

Mechanical advantage (B/E)

I

Efficiency = work output/work input(D/G) x 100

1.     Which pulley system required the greatest effort force?  Explain why.

2.     Which type of pulley had the greatest mechanical advantage?  Explain why this is.

(HINT:  Think of which system you had to pull the most string through)

3.     What would be an easier way to determine the mechanical advantage of a pulley system?

(HINT:  Think of how many strings are holding up the weight)

4.     Which pulley system was the most efficient?   Is this what you expected?

5.     Explain the best way that a mechanic could pull out a large truck engine by himself using the least possible amount of force.

6.     Try another system with more than 3 pulleys. Record your ideas and your results.

7.     In what sense does the pulley make the work easier?

8.     Design a simple machine (which works) where the input work is less than the output work. If this is not possible, explain why you think so.

A single pulley. Input force is directed down, weight moves up.

Single moveable pulley. Lifting force moves weight upward.

Block and tackle. One moveable pulley and one fixed pulley.  Downward input force lifts weight upward.

Some different ways to think about energy and energy transformations; the development of ideas about energy:

http://www.physics4kids.com/files/thermo_laws.html

http://education.seattlepi.com/everyday-examples-first-second-laws-thermodynamics-4740.html

http://www.nmsea.org/Curriculum/Primer/how_was_energy_discovered.htm

https://www.newscientist.com/blogs/culturelab/2010/07/the-discovery-of-energy.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/ancestors-einstein.html

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28 November Science 8 Astronomy–Scale Model of the Solar System

  • Mindful moment: Let’s watch– <https://www.mindfulschools.org/video/release-2/>.
  • Review blogpost below.
  • Questions.
  • Select students discuss grouping.
  • Form groups and begin planning for the scale model project. Also work through the various items in today’s blogpost.
  • Turn in Chemical Reaction summative project one by one. Be prepared to inform parents by email if your project is not ready to submit. Remember the reflection. Here is what was shown in the last blogpost. Need paper copy AND digital copy in your DSN:
    • you have investigated a particular chemical reaction (or family of reactions) and have gathered and analyzed both quantitative and qualitative data

    • chemical formula and other visual representation of a chemical reaction (like the ball and stick models of molecules) must be included and explained based on acquired data and observations

    • chemical formula or other visual representation of a chemical reaction must also demonstrate an understanding that substances are composed of different types of atoms combined in specific ways

    • demonstrate an understanding of the Law of the Conservation of Mass/Matterand how it is represented in your chemical change investigation

    • your investigation procedure should be documented in your final product

    • a final product (see below) (a clear photograph, a link and/or file is needed in addition to any material pieces as your situation warrants)

    • reference list–complete bibliographic information

    • a reflection outlining how each of the learning criteria are met in your final product—how you have “met” or “approached” each of the listed standards with examples drawn from your work. Explain specifically (with examples) how your thinking about matter has grown and changed during the course. Comment on your level of effort–DSN complete and up-to-date? Matter chart as complete as possible? Did you attempt the matter chart and try to link observations with explanations using atoms and molecules? What did you learn by trying to develop explanations for the variety of things you/we observed?

ASTRONOMY

Who has been following the recent landing on Mars?  See this from BBC. <https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-46351114>. And this from NASA <https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/timeline/landing/entry-descent-landing/>. See what else you can find. What questions do you have?

Photos taken in the last few weeks in India. 1. The constellation Orion before dawn from Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttarakhand during fall break. 2. Venus just before dawn last weekend from Panna Tiger Reserve in Madya Pradesh. 3. Full moon around 9:00 pm last weekend from Panna Tiger Reserve in Madya Pradesh. Stars, planet, Earth’s moon. How far are these objects from the Earth? Do they move about? In what manner?

 

Complete as much of the following as you can. Before the end of class today, be sure to see the description of the summative assessment project at the end of this post–Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance.

  • Answer the following in your digital science notebook–in the astronomy folder:
  • What do you already know about the earth, the moon, the sun, the planets, the stars, the universe? Do NOT look up any answers. Respond based on what you currently know or think you know.
  • These questions are important to think about and to write about: How do you know? How do we know? How do astronomers know? What are the methods of observation and argument?
  • Answer the following questions in your digital science notebook/take the survey and record your responses in your dsn: 
  • https://www.learner.org/teacherslab/pup/studentquestions.html
  • (You may use your own headphones for the next part, or, if they are available, check them out. If you do not have headphones, keep the volume low so others are not disturbed.)
  • Watch the following video about students’ ideas in astronomy: A Private Universe http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=9  OR https://vimeo.com/113349804
  • Write a summary in your DSN. List your questions. What are your private conceptions?

Watch the following video. Write a summary in your DSN. Explain the procedure used. List any questions you have. Read about making the video:

Watch the following videos and write summaries in your DSN–

History of Astronomy (browse the following. Be sure to examine the sites and view videos as we take up our study of astronomy).

See the description of the Summative Assessment Project below. You will build the model in groups, but the assessment project will be completed as individuals. We will use the sidewalk along the street along the west side of the school. We will begin in the next class. Be prepared.

mapschool

Each class will use San Martin Marg for the site of their models. San Martin Marg runs along the west side of the school. In the picture above, note the scale at the bottom right of the image. You can print this image to help you construct your model.

kcsolarmodel

“The exhibition begins with the sun, located at 13th and Baltimore, with the display running south along Baltimore through the Crossroads District, then ending in front of Union Station. The Voyage experience takes approximately thirty minutes to complete, walking at a leisurely pace from the sun to Pluto.”

http://voyagesolarsystem.org/community-network/kansas-city-kansas-voyage-mark-i/

***Summative Astronomy Sci 8 18-19 Making a model of our solar system to scale by size and distance***

***Groups prepare and construct the model.

Include the sun and all planets. Include Pluto. Include Ganymede (moon of Jupiter). Include Earth’s moon. Mark on a paper map the “location” distance to the closest star (other than the sun); It is a binary pair–Alpha Centauri <https://www.space.com/18090-alpha-centauri-nearest-star-system.html>. Is your map “big” enough?

***Individuals:

  1. Make a video (5 minute limit) (with commentary) OR ebook showing a scale model of solar system with both size and distance illustrated to the same scale.

  2. Produce in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) a written / sketched storyboard.

  3. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) equivalence chart / calculations to objects and orbits in the model.

  4. Provide information about sizes, distances and scale.

  5. Present in hard copy and digital (in students’ DSNs) the directions and inclinations of orbits. (Include interesting facts about the orbits and planets in the commentary.)

8.SC.BTH.A.2 – 2. Developing and using models

8.SC.BTH.A.5 – 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

8.SC.BTH.B.3 – 3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

8.SC.BTH.E.2 – ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

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27 November Science 7 Report Card Comment Suggestions AND Energy

  • Mindful moment.
  • Review past DSN entries / past class. Your Comeback Can Summative project is due at the beginning of the next class. Paper copy AND digital copy. Do not forget the description/explanation AND the reflection.
  • See today’s blogpost–it is important. Bookmark it for the references.
  • Prepare for today’s activities. There will be two parts. 1) Report card comment suggestions and 2) Energy.
  • Questions.
  • * * * *

Report card comment suggestions. The goal is for the comments about you and science 7 to be specific and individually relevant. Be sure to use specific examples. Please explain your thoughts fully.

Complete the following on lined paper with your name and period, turn in, and keep a copy (photo) for your DSN.

A. What sort of comment do you feel would be most helpful to you and your parents with regard to you and Science 7? Why? Write an example.

B. What truly accurate comment would you write about your understanding of scientific ideas in Science 7?

  1. Describe a particular concept where your understanding grew, changed, and became more sophisticated. How did this happen for you?
  2. Describe a particular concept that presented a barrier to your understanding. Why do you think the idea was difficult for you? What have you done in response to the challenge? What do you think would help you overcome the challenge in understanding?

C. What truly accurate comment would you write about your skill(s) at carrying out scientific investigations? Consult the chart of scientific practices at the front of the room. Where do you feel you have grown in terms of scientific practices and skills? What has been most helpful.

D. What truly accurate comment would you make about your level of effort in science 7. The digital science notebook has been promoted as a way for every student to improve in sustained engagement. A promise was made that if a student kept a complete and up-to-date DSN, that their science learning would grow. To what extent have you tested this promise. Explain the level of effort you have devoted to the DSN.

E. What benefits do you see in learning scientific ideas/explanations and the scientific ways of working and of seeing the world? To what do you attribute your views? What are your plans for next semester? Next year? After high school? After that? Do you have any long term ambitions? What are they? How do you see yourself with respect to those ambitions?

  • * * * *

See the kinetic sculptures/toys in the center of the class. Observe them. Record your observations in your DSN entry for the day.

Offer an explanation for the things you see.

  • * * * *

What do you know about swinging on playground swings? Describe your experience. What affects what happens when you swing? How?

Swing = one full cycle back and forth

Frequency = how many swings occur in a given amount of time

What happens during one swing–direction? speed? weight? other?

What are the factors that affect how a swing operates? What is the basis for the effect?

swing

In what way is the comeback car like a swing?

Oscillators. See this video clip: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47LBKOaO0JU>

Watch the following video as homework. If you do not want to watch it in one sitting, watch it in segments. Use the captions. Start and stop to make sure you understand each example. List your questions about ideas, examples, vocabulary.

Change (from the Ring of Truth–An Inquiry into How We Know What We Know) <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nk8CQNThbc0>

Some ideas about Energy. Notice those expressed in common terms (from <https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Laws_of_thermodynamics>):

There are three ‘Laws’ of thermodynamics (“laws” in the sense that they describe how physical systems “must” behave), and also a “zeroth” law, which isn’t really a law so much as a definition of what is meant by “temperature”.

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics: “When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.”
  • First law of thermodynamics: “The total energy of the Universe is constant.”
  • Second law of thermodynamics: “The entropy of an isolated system does not decrease.”
  • Third law of thermodynamics: “As the temperature of a perfect crystal approaches zero, its entropy approaches a constant.”[1]

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Laws may be humorously summarized in non-scientific form as:

  1. You can’t get something for nothing.
  2. You can’t even break even unless you cool the temperature to absolute zero.
  3. It’s impossible to actually reach absolute zero.

Or, if you are a poker player:

  1. You can’t win.
  2. You can’t break even.
  3. You can’t get out of the game.
  • * * * *

How would you explain the idea of Energy? How do you think your idea might compare to the scientific idea?

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